December 3 Primates.docx

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Western University
Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1083F/G
Daniel Robinson

December 3 Primates 12/12/2012 8:47:00 AM How and Where Did Primates Originate?  Arboreal theory o Primates became primates by adapting to life in trees o Enhanced sight (depth perception) o Grasping hands and feet  Visual predation hypothesis o Binocular vision, grasping hands and feet, and reduced claws developed because they facilitated the capture of insects. o First adapted to life in the bushy forest undergrowth and low tree branches. Oldest Primates  The earliest primates date to at least the Paleocene (65-54 million years ago), but possibly appeared as early as Late Cretaceous.  The Eocene (54-38 million years ago) was the epoch of __________ with at least 60 different genera in two families. The Big Split  Anthropoid line split from Prosimian line o by Paleocene or Eocene  Anthropoids o (“Higher Primates”) o monkey o marmosets o tamarins o spider monkeys  Prosimians o (“Lower Primates” ) o lemur o lorises Major differences between Prosimians and Anthropoids  Anthropoid eyes are rotated more forward compared to prosimians.  Anthropoids have a fully enclosed bony eye socket.  Anthropoids have a dry nose separate from the upper lip.  Anthropoid molars more complex and differentiated than prosimian Early Anthropoids  Parapithecines (e.g. Aegytopithecus)  After splits, anthropoids came into their own, transitional  By the Oligocene (38-23 million years ago), anthropoids dominated over lemurs and relatives.  The beginnings of the anthropoid group are traced to generalized forms such as the parapithecines (e.g., Aegyptopithecus). Aegyptopithecus, cont’d  Body of Aegyptopithecus resembled that of a lemur, but teeth more anthropoid-like  Aegyptopithecus or related form is though to be the common relative of the New World Monkeys and the Old World Monkey- Hominoid Group Early Anthropoids  Dryopithecines (e.g. Proconsul  Dryopithecines (e.g. Proconsul) thought to be the common ancestor of the Old World Monkeys and Ape-Human Line  Proconsul’s teeth have similarities with modern apes, but below the neck the skeleton is more monkey-like. Living Representatives (Anthropoids)  Old World Monkeys o (baboons, macaques, mandrills)  Old world distinguished fro
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