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Earth Science Exam 2.docx

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Western University
Earth Sciences
Earth Sciences 1086F/G

Chapter 10 venus Thats No LadyVenus is called evening star or the morning starMagellan is the space ship launched from space shuttle for USAClockwise rotation called retrograde and very slow slowest spinning object in known universeAtmosphere mainly CO2 same amount as earth 03CO2 is transparent to incoming light opaque to outgoing infrared energy 462 degrees Only planet with OH 150 times more Deuterium Once had liquid waterVenera spacecraft soviet lander No need for artificial lighting lower atmosphere is clear Winds gentle faster higher up Surface Less craters due to thick atmosphere Few craters means they formed after a recent major volcanic activity Surface is 500 mil years old Planet same age as earthCoronae Huge dome surrounded by concentric fractures formed by mantle plumesCaldera deep volcanic crater result from cornea blowing its topPancake volcanoes falttened domes formed by quite viscous magma flattened by high atmospheric pressure hundredsWind direction causes erosion not water since its too dryvisually examinedInterior mix of roockmetal core No magnetic fieldMagnetic field is detected by venus express but it is from the solar wind and upper atmosphereChapter 11 MarsCanali channels on mars artificial lines in desert regionsSpirit and OpportunitySpirit stuck in sand trp Lose communicationOpportunityfinish exploration of Endeavour crater analyzing rock types Curiosity by NASA on 2011 Landed on Aeolis Palus crater at a site called Bradbury landingAtmosphere 95 CO2 Little H20 gas and oxygenPrimitive atmosphere first atmosphere with H and little HeSecondary atmosphere volcanically emitted gas earth venus are the same in secondaryLower Escape velocity half of EarthNever had oxygenrich atmosphere never had ozoneIron oxide in the soil makes it red Components can be broken down and loss in to spaceSolar wind strongly affects the surfacePolar hood due to freezing of CO2 clouds and Haze CO2 ice particles in polar regionsPolar regions are all ice and dry ice carbon dioxideSaltation process by wind lifting heavy and light grains to hop erratically over the surfaceDune fields are common like desertsCurrent atmospheric pressure is too low to keep liquid to boil to vapour Geological features indicates moving waterWater on Marsfill Lake Michigan twice more on northsouth poles measured by Odyssey spacecraftSome are under cratersMagma of the rocks contained 18 waterthere was a huge river means atmosphere was thicker long time ago 25 to 35 bil
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