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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
Earth Sciences 1086F/G
Professor
Prof
Semester
Summer

Description
Earth Science NotesUnit 1IntroductionUnit 1 Learning GoalsTo understand that science is based upon the rigorous application of a method that begins with observation proceeds to the formulation and testing of a hypothesis and eventually to theory and possibly to lawTo grasp the concept of the Big Bang and all its limitations and frustrationsWhat observations led to the acceptance of the Big Bang TheoryHow to define and measure time and space in the universeTo understand that natural processes proceed from simple toward complexThe production of elements starts with basic atomic particles combining to form the simplest elementsFusion and fission together act on the first elements to make progressively more complex element structuresScientific theoryScience begins with observation proceeds to the formulation and testing of a hypothesis and eventually to theory and possibly to lawNatural processes proceed from simple to complexThe production of elements starts with basic atomic particles combining to form the simplest elementsFusion and fission together act on the first elements to make progressively more complex element structures Temperature ScalesTwo types of scales Celsius everyday Kelvin very low temperature situations such as surface of planets and satellitesChapter 1 Scientific Theory and the Big BangIntroductionOverviewScientific TheoryBig BangScientific MethodHypothesis educated guess based on observationoCan be supported or rejection but cannot be proven to be trueTheory summarized a hypothesis that is supported by repeated testing and observationoValid as long as no film evidence to disputeoIf evidence supports a hypothesis it becomes a theoryoNot guaranteed to be true but best we can do based on evidenceoExplain the whyLaw explains a body of observationsoExplains how something happens as opposed to theories which explain whyoExample Newtons Law of Gravity does not explain why it falls it simply explains how it fallsObservationEvery swan Ive seen this year is whiteHypothesisAll swans must be whiteExperimentTestA random sampling of swans from each continent where swans are indigenous produces only white swansPublication of my hypothesisMy global research has indicated that swans are always white wherever they are foundFurther testingEvery swan any other scientist has ever observed in any country has always been whiteTheoryAll swans are whitePredictionThe next swan I see will be whiteThe Big BangAn effort to explain exactly what happened at the very beginning of the universeBefore the Big Bang the universe did not existTime and space were created in gigantic expansion that formed from a singularity an area in spacetime where gravitational force is so high that all known laws of physics break down and do not applyGigantic expansion not an explosion because that would be there would have to already be time and space which there wasnt think of it as a balloon expandingThe Observation EvidenceThree main theories aka Three Pillars of Proof1Recession of starsgalaxies as described by Hubbles Law2The characteristics of cosmic microwave background radiation3The abundance of light elements1 Hubbles LawContributionsoDemonstrated there more galaxies in the world than just the Milky wayoProved the universe is expandingoShowed us how to measure distance in spaceNASA installed optical telescope into earths orbit named the Hubble Space TelescopeLights Redshift and Hubbles LawoDistinction between property of sound and a property of lightoDippler Shift or Doppler Effect when an object coming toward you makes a sound the sound waves are compressed by the motion of the noisy object and sounds differently to you than when the same sound waves are being carried off away from you but to someone in the train it sounds the same all the time so the person standing beside the train had an apparent change in soundoFigured the speed of light would act similaroIf the light source is moving toward the observer the light wavelength appears to shorten ie to move into the blue spectrum or blueshifted and if the light source is moving away from the observer the light wavelength appears to lengthen ie to move into the red spectrum or redshiftedoThe faster the lightemitting object was moving the greater the shiftoSince the speed of light cannot actually change it is fixed the apparent change means that for example stars had to be moving away from EarthoThe more distant a galaxy is from the Earth the longer its light takes to arrive which means it appears more redshifted when it arrivesoThe amount of redshift can be used to measure stars or galaxys distances from EarthoHubble Law Equation vHdomaybe read over2 Cosmic Microwave Background RadiationEstimated that the earth was extremely hot in the first seconds of the universe and then as it expanded it cooledCMB Cosmic Microwave BackgroundoRepresents the very last remnants of the lightheat energy of the Big Bangs initial expansionoGreat variation in temperature in the figure but in reality is not much at all3 Abundance of Light ElementsHas to do with the ratio of all the various atoms of the three lightest elementsoHydrogen 75oHelium 25oLithium trace
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