The Horse Dealer's Daughter
Published in 1922 - was the middle of the first world-war, the first time people were confronted with real warfare.
Originally called 'the miracle'.
• Placed love at the pinnacle.
• Lawrence made his own patterns of Christianity - saw the potential as a 'rhetoric of magnification'
• Doctor and Mabel both need awakening
• Joe is 33 years old - the age of Christ at crucifixion
• ROSE from the water, language of Christianity. - gasping for air, he knew he was in the world.
• The title suggests she has no identity on her own.
• The woman is the vehicle for the DR to grow and change. To bring him self-awareness.
Published in 1914 - Ireland is politically, economically and culturally dependent on Britain.
• The Irish (Dubliners) are 'death in life' ... spiritually, and culturally.
• Paralysis - the inability of the Irish to take control of their personal and public lives.
• Phrenology - your personality is displayed in your face. (Gabriel is an intellectual - high forehead)
• Freddy - says the same joke over and over again - no change. The type of person he despises.
• There are 12 Goodnights before they leave - there were 12 disciples at the last dinner who would have said
• In the Hotel Room (Gabriel & Gretta) - He is aligning himself with life - Think of Gabriel as every Irishman -
with the capacity to be both living and dead.
Joyce divides two groups of people -
The west: Lily, Gretta, Miss Ivors, Bartell D'Avey 2
The east: Gabriel, Misses Morken, other guests
Freddy Malins ----
o Took a pledge not to drink, but drank anyway.
Mr. Browne (the e on the end is on purpose) ----
o Embodies the paralysis of Ireland. - cheerful, obnoxious with women
o The British presence, that is almost impossible to escape from. Browne is everywhere.
o No epiphany is possible for him - he is the source of problems
o Sees right through all the superficiality, all the phoniness .
o Rejects Gabriel's attempt to classify her
Bartell D'Arcy ----
o Tries to reject the classic drunk Irish stereotype - he doesn't want a drink.
1. Musical Interlude ---> 2. Dinner ---> 3. Ride to Hotel ---> 4. Gab + Gret ---> 5. Gab
Brave New World
Written in 1930/1931 - response to the historical/political/economic conditions. Period of the great economic crash.
Also the era of totalitarianism in Europe (fascism in Italy and Spain, communism tightening its grip in Russia, and
Nazism in Germany)
• Heterocosm (other world) - setting , a whole new other world -- imaginatively
• Matrix (womb) - loss of freedom, the idea which all the ideas from the novel flow. The conception of the core
ideas, characters, and setting of the novel.
• Science Fiction - Builds its world around scientific discoveries, some speculations that were 'in the air' at the
• Utopian - Moore was first to use it - presents a world that's 'better' but still flawed. The world seems to be
ideal - a world of stability, order, and peace. Can too much stability, too much order be restricting? A trap?
• Dystopia - Opposite to an ideal world. A utopia with a flaw in the middle of it. 3
• Anti-romantic, anti-individualistic society
• The entire novel is upside-down, it focuses on contraries. Value's in our society aren't valued in theirs.
• We meet Lenina and Fanny --> both attractive girls, overheard by Bernard. Also, Henry Foster.
• Henry Ford was on the side of consumerism, spend with the aspiration that you'll look & feel better.
• There's no past and no future, only for Mustafa Mond. Everything is present.
• Linda and The Savage - A shift to a new environment.
Politics and the English Language
• Eric Blair (Orwell's real name)
• Magisterial (teaching)- makes lists & uses points, Colloquial (chatty)
• Double-think: think one thing, but believe another
• 2nd world war just finished
• Viewed language as a disease - wasn't used for truth telling or communication, it's used for hiding the truth
or political purposes. (All issues are political issues )
• Exordium (opening paragraph of a speech) - used to make the audience well disposed, attentive and
interested, and receptive and open to the ideas.
Scatalogical - the lower regions of the body is a traditional weapon of satire. Makes things witty and funny while being
Innuendo - gentle implication of something being superficially said.
Sarcasm - heavy satire.
'Militant Irony' - irony at its most aggressive. (requires a target of attack, & and standard/norm)
Satire - helping someone see their issue and approach it to fix it. As opposed to 'making fun' of the person.
Irony - an elevated perspective. We are looking down. Strictly an adult idea, children cannot be ironic. *Saying one
thing, and meaning another. 4
RIGHT REASON: reason informed. guided, and formed by moral and spiritual values.
A Modest Proposal - Satire
England from Swifts perspective was consuming Ireland - it was being EATEN ALIVE. - like in the dead, the Irish
could not fight back and take their lives back , they were dead.
• Digression - defines the limits of a proposal.
• Refutation - a means of articulating what he really believes is the solution to Irelands problems.
• He has used the device of shock, repulsion, the inhuman - the persona is articulating this. He wants the
audience to recognize the actual eating of Ireland. He wants them to then, solve their problems
• Swift suggests that the impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by selling their children as
food for rich gentlemen and ladies
Sir Gawain and The Green Knight
Quest: Perilous Journey - series of small adventures. Going from center of society into chaos or unknown. Crucial
Struggle - two in the green knight, one in his bedroom and one outside. Exaltation of the hero - returns back, and the
hero is exalted. (a journey out and back, but at a higher level)
Chivalric Code - Code of conduct
2) Courtesy - the code of politeness and good manners
Alliterative Verse - each line has to have 4 heavy stresses. At least 3 of which are alliterate. Each line should have a
Caesura in it (a pause). Each line can have any number of unstressed syllables. There can be no rhyme.
Bob and Wheel - the end of every first paragraph. Contains 1 line with a stress called the bob, then other lines with 2
stresses. (Ex. Dontchya wish your girlfriend was hot like me, dontchya wish your....) dontchya = bob.
Allegory = 1 meaning
Symbol = Many meanings
also, Emblem = 1 meaning
Pagan (Axe), Christian (Sword) - Green Knight comes with an axe 5
My Last Duchess - Dramatic Monologue
• He takes the nursery rhyme and uses it as a vehicle for something much more serious
• Iambic pentameter - starting with certain letters (aa,bb,cc,dd)
• Dramatic Monologue- Single speaker who is not the poet, Listener other than the reader
• The Duke shows a painting of his wife -- eventually hides it behind the curtain from being uneasy.
• You get the feeling the Duke owns his wife
What is it about the shape of a lyric? Why did it emerge? -- It gives the poet the opportunity to present and contrast
ideas. Or present and expand ideas. Create a simile, a metaphor, or an analogy over a number of lines ---> to extend
Sonnets are USUALLY about love. The lover compares the beloved to an object in the natural world. (examples: link
to fruit -> her nipples like strawberries, link to a season -> her hair is a ray of sunshine, or the cosmos -> she's as
beautiful as a star)
Sonnet 116 - How time effects love (or doesn't), passion and appetite are good things --- if properly controlled.
Batter My Heart...
• He says he and his wife have a marriage of true minds
• Donne is leaving his wife temporarily to go to France, he reassures her things will be fine
• Christian Humanism - combination of faith, belief, and wanting to be redeemed. Ideally this is 'right reason'.
• The speaker wants God to enter his heart aggressively and violently, instead of gently.
• At the "turn" of the poem the speaker admits that he loves God, and wants to be loved, but is tied down to
God's unspecified "enemy" instead, whom we can think of as Satan, or possibly "reason."
• He can't be free unless God enslaves and excites him, he can't refrain from sex unless God carries him away and delights
Lines Composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey - Great Romantic Lyric 6
• Turn> Counterturn > Stand (one idea, another idea, then stand)
• New view on nature - it's a manifesto
• Sometimes overlooking a harsh social reality
• Trying to show that feelings and emotions and imagination are more important than reason/objectivity
• Nature becomes everything, it will fulfill all your needs and fill your heart
Aristotle (wax tablet)
John Locke (tabula rasa)
Ode on a Grecian Urn
• Platonic Triad ---> Good (ethics), Beautiful (aesthetics), True (philosophy, science)
• Platonic Ladder- the idea that by a series of stages we can move up a ladder to the spiritual.
• Aestheticism (Art for Art's Sake) - not about morality. Just to be a beautiful thing
• Beautiful things are a source of EARTHLY knowledge.
• Ode --> a poem of some length ---- turn, counterturn, stand
A lover eternally pursues a beloved without fulfilment
'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'
This poem is equivalent to a footprint in the sand---
if you find one, by looking at its size-shape-depth you can induce things about it. But you CAN'T tell what colour their
hair is, or their eyes, or what they're thinking. You can't tell their culture, it remains mysterious.
Black Daisies for the Bride
Two stanzas at the beginning balanced by three at the end. Each stanza has abab cdcd
One pattern: the topos of the three women -- functions in 3 different ways;
1) Used to show the ages of women (pretty girls in contrast to the sad patients) 7
2) The judgment of Paris, the women representing beauty and wisdom and power (once upon a time they did,
but not anymore!!!)
3) The three graces -- three young women who represent vitality and youth of the female sex.
The emphasis on things that stimulate memory - the taste of yoghurt of Christmas time (ex.), the use of writing , and
the use of song (carols, and decorations).
Shakespearean Tragedy - gradual deterioration of passion and reason that collapses. When reason decays so too
does language - pattern becomes meaningless. The patients didn't CHOSE to get sick, it's as if it is destiny. (Oedipus
doesn't choose to sleep with his mother, it is his destiny -- no conscious choice ----- patients are victims of genetics)
Boethius: Consolation of Philosophy - wrote when under the sentence of death. He wrote about the Wheel of Fortune
- he says it is dangerous territory. The wheel is always turning --- if you're at the bottom things can still change. If
you're at the top -- you can lose it at any time.
• Ferdinand, Miranda
• Soliloquy - Ferdinand speaks of love in a way that is addressed to the audience. And he is telling the truth -
as far as he knows it.
• Prospero is a teacher - (strengthening of the human mind)
• Prospero educates the lovers to control their passions so they have the potential for a marriage of the minds
Passion is composed of:
feelings (things like sadness, happiness, peacefulness, etc. – relatively passive)
emotions (something active that wants to incite us to move, agitated, turbulent, less passive feelings i.e. love, pity,
passions (extreme range of emotions that can become uncontrolled and drive people to extremes)
• Prospero; a magician, resembles Merlin of Arthurian legend, uses white magic to bring about a better world
• Sycorax; black magic, The most important of the two is white magic, because Prospero aims to control the
elements to bring about the world and educate the characters of the Christian-Humanism way of thinking
• Ariel; a spirit of the air, who uses music to bring harmony, tranquility + peace.
• Caliban ; enormous appetite for food/sex, he is controlled from consummating with Miranda - Reason (Ariel,
Prospero), Passion (Caliban),
• Miranda; Beautiful, fairytale princess , Well educated, but naive when confronted with the real world 8
• Ferdinand; Fairytale prince, young, handsome, an aristocrat, Immediate mutual infatuation with Miranda
(love at first sight can be dangerous)
Blocking Character (Prospero): someone who prevents two characters from consummating their relationship to
quickly. If they consummate too quickly, without fully developing their relationship, it will not be a true meeting of the
Creative moral intelligence *(someone who understands that no matter how bad things look --- they're not)
The marriage of true minds - love at first sight is dangerous. (all you see is the image they project). Ferdinand
considers Miranda a good wife! He asks her to marry him.
Magnum Opus (great work, Prospero's project)
Goddess Description Season
Iris goddess of the rainbow. Rainbows Spring - Growth
follow storms and rain. Associated
with fertility. Something negative
passes and light is left there. *Also a
strange flower.* Indicates spring and
Ceres mother earth. Looks over fertility, Summer - Fertility
growth, and development. (Marriage
Juno most powerful. To evoke and to Fall - Fruition
achieve the highest possible
Venus/Cupid They aren't present because cupids Winter - Season of Death
arrows are painful. He wants a
The Rape of The Lock
Vanity of an excessive love of material objects (Rape of the Lock is full of “things”) and vanity of an excessive interest
in personal appearance.
They reflect an image of conducting one’s self which is based on going through actions endlessly.
• Begins with Belinda still asleep. Her "guardian Sylph " (line 20), named Ariel, warns her while she sleeps
• Ariel, disturbed by the impending event, though he does not know what it will be, summons many sylphs to
him and instructs them to guard Belinda
• The Baron still conspires to get her lock - and does so on his third try 9
• A court battle ensues between the nobles. The Lock is lost.
• Even when we are all dead and gone, Belinda's lock of hair shall live on forever
"This lock the Muse shall consecrate to fame, and 'midst the stars inscribe Belinda's name"
• Satan is a false, and evil leader. Uses the device of flattery, and the skill of persuasion.
• Inverted Parallels, the doors are made of grass. --- Unholy Trinity - death, sin, chaos
'...such is the will of heaven' --- implies everything Satan does, he does because he chooses too. God permits it. God
could have stopped it, but he chose not to stop sin, death, or chaos. He gave everyone free will.
The Fall of Eve was engineered by Satan - and it required a great deal of work and skill to make it happen.
Satan; Many readers have argues that Milton deliberately makes Satan seem heroic and appealing early in the poem
to draw us into sympathizing with him against our will, so that we may see how seductive evil is and learn to be more
vigilant in resisting it.
• In the first book he is a strong, imposing figure with great abilities as a leader and statesmen whereas by the
poems end he slinks back to Hell in serpent form.
Adam; a strong, intelligent, and rational character possessed of a remarkable relationship with God.
• After the fall, his self-doubt and anger demonstrate his new ability to indulge in rash and irrational attitudes.
• Adams greatest weakness is his love for Eve.
Eve; Ironically, her greatest asset [her beauty] produces her most serious weakness, vanity. After Satan compliments
her on her beauty and godliness, he easily persuades her to eat from the Tree.
• She is not unintelligent, but she is not ambitious to learn.
At first Laura and Lizzie they try to ignore the enticing calls of the goblin men, but eventually Laura decides to go out
and see what's happening. Lizzie warns her not to, but Laura is too curious.
• The goblin men offer her their fruit, and Laura thinks it looks tasty. She doesn't have any money, but the
goblins offer to take a piece of her golden hair instead.
• There are no men. Laura and Lizzie live by themselves, and even at the end of the poem, we learn that they
have become "wives/ With children of their own" - no husbands 10
• Lizzy is described like a Lilly - the discussion of both characters is important. (Lilly was purity and innocence
• 'Like' starts many sentences --- lots of similes. Like in paradise losts' epic similes. (Milton)
Religious reading; Lizzie becomes a Christ figure who faces evil and rescues her sister. Laura can be read as an Eve
figure who eats of the forbidden fruit
Fairy tale reading; Laura is curious, susceptible to temptation, easily led astray. Lizzie is more prudent.
Heart of Darkness
Epater le bourgeois: To annoy/disconcert the middle class. They regard themselves as living above the ordinary
middle class way of the 9-5 job, domesticity, etc. They mock middle class values and practices. They work to
subvert middle class values and to make these people feel that their value system was not working.
• Story of a journey into the darkness of Africa but, above all, the darkness at the heart of humanity.
• Journey there, hardships, and then journey back. But Marlow's story is undetermined, there is no elevation
in the journey back.
• Marlow is accompanied by imperialist figures. (Military and administrative manifestation ---> extracting things
from other places)