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Anatomy First Midterm Review.docx

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Western University
Foods and Nutrition
Foods and Nutrition 1021

HS 2300A: MIDTERM ONE th September 11 Lecture Henry Grey (1858): published anatomy text, dissected human body and labeled it Anatomy: means dissection, gross anatomy means you can see with naked eye Systematic Anatomy: look at the system and look at all the structures in that system • Preferred way of teaching • Takes away the clutter-ness, but can’t do this on real cadavers • Systems don’t work in isolation (skeletal, digestive, nervous, etc) Regional Anatomy: take a region and look at all the structures in that region • 11 systems in body, you look at each one in this perspective • Sometime regions are not clearly defined, so more general Anatomical Nomenclature • Clear communication and consistency, uses anatomical directions, regions, and landmarks • Always reference back to the anatomical position even if they aren’t in that position Anatomical Position • Always about the patient, right means patient’s right • Medial (towards midline), lateral (away from midline) • Superior (higher), inferior (lower) • Anterior (front), posterior (back) Planes of Reference • Frontal: divides in anterior/posterior • Sagittal: dissects into a left/right half, midsagittal lies on midline of body. Parasagittal plane is off the midline • Transverse: horizontal, parallel to ground, dissects into superior/inferior sections Brachial: aka arm, from elbow to shoulder Antibrachial: aka forearm, elbow to wrist Body Cavities: enclosed by a protective mucous membrane • Much easier to identify, distinct borders • Protects vital organs and help[s to regionally organize the body Two Main Cavities: 1. Dorsal Cavity: back, cranial, vertebral cavity 2. Ventral Cavity: front, thoracic cavity (lungs and major organs between the lungs), mediastinum (esophagus, trachea), and abdominal Body Compartments: enclosed spaces lined with fascia • Separated by joints and fascia • Share similar function, innervations, and blood supply • 3 compartments in thigh: medial, anterior, posterior • 3 compartments in lower leg: lateral, anterior, posterior Body Organization: 6 different levels • Chemical level (atoms)  cellular level (200 different cells)  tissues (4 different)  organs  systems (11 different)  organismal • Tissues: nervous, muscle, connective, epithelial • Every organ must have at least 2 tissues (requirement), but all of them actually have 4 Epithelia Tissue: covering tissue, creates barrier, regulates diffusion Types: classified using a two name system (first = layering, second = shape) • Layers: simple (one layer, diffusion), stratified (multiple layers, stacked, barriers), pseudostratified (not abundant, single cells that kind of look stratified) • Shape: squamous: (squashed, most diffusion), cuboidal (cube), columnar (column) • Simple columnar (intestine), stratified squamous (skin), simple cuboidal (tubules of kidney), stratified cuboidal (esophagus) stratified columnar (throat) • Cuboid and columnar are for absorption and secretion • Stratified makes it harder for toxins to enter, top layer is so far away from vascular supply its not alive (therefore won’t let anything in) Functioning: secrete, move fluids across, move fluids through • Cells are closely opposed (cell junctions) • Form surface linings of most glands – glandular epithelia lines pancreas, secretes insulin • Epithelial tissue is avascular but innervated (doesn’t receive blood supply) • Cells are polarized (apical faces medially inside organ, Basal faces laterally on outer surface) • High regenerative capacity, very important • Subcutaneous space: contains all the vascular supply • Identity: organelles are located towards apex (top of cell), and nucleus is towards the bottom (basal) so toxins can’t get into DNA, organelles kill them first • Cilia/microvilli helps in fallopian tubes to move an egg into uterus September 13 Lecture Connective Tissue: most diverse and abundant tissue in the body Functions: provides structure and support (bone tissue) • Surrounds, protects, connects structures such as blood vessels, nerves, and other tissues • Composed of living cells and non-living extracellular matrix fibres (dense) • Stores and carries nutrients • Tissue that has relatively few cells but an abundance of extracellular (matrix) • Collegen fibers: more there are, denser the tissue is, fat cells don’t have many Types • Proper: loose o Areolar Tissue: called packing tissue because it is found in nearly every structure of the body, in subcutaneous space, used for strength, elasticity, and support o Adipose Tissue: fat, most prevalent in subcutaneous space, increases blood vessels and therefore blood pressure o Reticular Tissue: located in the stroma (supporting framework) of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, etc. Forms stroma of organs, binds together smooth muscle tissue cells • Proper: dense o Regular: forms tendons, ligaments (holds bones together), organized, withstands tension o Irregular: disorganized, fascia – creates compartments of muscle, has to stretch in different directions so pattern is in different directions o Elastic: walls of arteries • Specialized: Cartilage (avascular, lacks innervations, at the joining of bones - articulations) o Hyaline: turns into bones, weakest  Supports, reinforces, resilient cushioning, resists compressive stress and friction (friction produces inflammatory response and unnecessary damage)  Much collagen fibers and water, therefore flexible  At bone plates in growing children, turns into bones o Elastic: more elastic than hyaline  Flexible but maintains shape  Where you need ability to recoil, examples are ear and epoglotis (over larynx when we swallow) o Fibrocartilage: great tensile strength  Absorbs compressive shock  Orientated fibres, most rigid  Located where there is tremendous amounts of compression  Vertebral disks are fibrocartilage, also within knee (seperates femur/tibia), and pubic bone • Specialized: Bones o Rock like compared to other tissues  Collagen is like rebar in walls, calcium is like rocks o Abundant collagen fibres, resists tension/friction/inflammatory response  Boiling a bone destroys organic material (collagen) and leaves you with Ca salts, very brittle bone o Contains inorganic calcium salts that form a incompressible matrix  When levels of calcium decrease, calcium will bleed out of bone and cause it to be very weak, turns it bone to compressible hyaline cartilage  Acid will take out salts, only left with collagen and bone will become rubbery o Osteoblasts (immature bone) secrete collagen into matrix where Ca2+ salts precipitate forming a hardening matrix.  Bridge bone back together o Osteocytes (mature bone) inhabit cavities (lacunae) within the hardened mixture  Maintain existing bone o Bone is alive with rich capillary network (blood is stored in bone), bone creates red blood cells • Specialized: Blood o Bad explanation: connects organs through the cardiovascular system o Good: termed connective due to embryonic origin, just like the other connective tissues it from mesenchyme o Good: blood cells that are surrounding by nonliving matrix (the plasma) o Has structural integrity September 18 Lecture Muscle Tissue: used for movement • Cells are called muscle fibres or myocytes: long instead of circular • Types of muscle tissue o Skeletal: for movement and support, voluntary, moves skeleton, striated o Cardiac: creates blood pressure, striated muscle (stripey), moves blood through circulatory system, unconscious, autonomic nervous system used o Smooth: automatic slave, from bowels to blood pressure, involuntary, autonomic nervous system, lines organs, not striated Nervous Tissue • Main component of nervous organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves • Neurons, highly specialized, generate, conduct electrical impulses over long distance • Longest cells in body • Neuroganglia are the supporting cells that nourish, insulate, and protect the neurons • Excitable tissue, stimulates skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, etc • Signal is never lost • Neuroganglia clean up area well if sections of neuron is destroyed The Integumentary System: large organ that covers the body, everyone’s skin looks different Epidermis: epi (above), top layer of skin, made almost entirely of epithelia tissues, avascular, relies on dermis, wavelike structure increases surface area • Top layer is stratified squamous (C) o Keratin is a protein that gives skin its strength • Keratinized squamous epithelium o Keratinocytes: tough, carry melanin granules, fall off eventually (loosing tan) o Melanocytes: colour granules, produce melanin, everyone has the same amount of melanocytes, will produce more melanin during sulight (gives you a tan), cuboidal, UV protection o Melanin: pigment, gives color, stored in keratinocytes, protects cells, creates shield around nucleus from UV rays  Eumelanin: black/brown  Pheomelanin: red/ yellow o Merkel cells: sensory, tactile cells o Langerhans cell: microphages, cleans up dead tissue • 5 layers of Epidermis(stratum) 1. Basale (deep): active layer, lots of cell division, also known as germ layer, single layer 2. Spinosum (spider): largest layer, made up of mostly keratinocytes, protective layer, large, thick, tightly ajoined cells normally, they thought it looked spider-like cause they dehydrated them when analyzing them, 8-10 layers 3. Granulosum: too far from oxygen area, start to die, release lipid (water phobic) filled sacks as they die – creates waterproofing layer at granulose , 3-5 layers, last area of oxygenation 4. Lucidum: palms and soles of feet, hard layer, thick skin that is dead 5. Corneum: referred to as horny (cornified) cells, dead and dehydrated, proteins still exist that keep them attached, 25-30 layers of dead skin cells Dermis: connective tissue, vascular, two layers • Dermis tissues of animals are what makes leather • Layer that gives strength of skin • As we age, connective tissue loosens, causes flabbiness • Where you place ink for tattoos • If you bleed you have moved to the dermis • Papillary layer: isn’t as strong, contain orientated collagen fibres, not as dense, allows diffusion of gases to epidermis, 20% • Reticular Layer: contains a reticular fibre papillary doesn’t have, very strong, ink goes here, not very stretchy, if destroyed will have bleeding, will have stretch marks when remade, scar will form, if you have incision made with the orientation of collagen fibres then it decreases the scar, 80% Hypodermis: hypo (below), also called the subcutaneous layer • Formed by areolar and adipose tissue: adipose predominates, allows movement of muscle tissue below, site of subcutaneous fat (women in thighs, men in abdominal), insulates body Skin Colour: pigments from melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin • Melanin: precursor is tyrosine o Ranges from yellow-red-brown-black o Freckles/moles are localized melanin, come from damage o Vitiligo: patches of white skin, can’t produce any melanin, albinos don’t have any melanin o Jaundice disease: yellowness of skin, liver disease o Moles are overgrowth of melanocytes, dangerous o Freckles take in melanin, the more you have the more protection • Carotene: yellow/orange from veggies o Accumulates in stratum corneum and fat of hypodermis • Hemoglobin: O carrying part of the RBC 2 o Wherever there are capillaries there’s hemoglobin, gives skin pinkish hue when you blush, birthmark? Skin Appendages (additions): apart of epidermis but goes into dermis • Hair: dead keratinized cells secreted from the living hair follicle o Root of hair is basal layer, produces a type of pigment from melanocytes (blonde, brown, etc), as we age melanocytes stop producing melanin (gray) • Sebaceous glands (grease): secrete sebum which protects and conditions the skin o Attached to hair follicle, keeps skin from getting too brittle, gives some strength to hair • Sweat glands: cools body o Secrete sweat (a blood filtrate), which is 99% water • Nail: similar to hair, very strong o Scale like modification of the epidermis, human equivalent to a hoof Burns: causes rapid fluid loss and reduced blood flow, infection risk is high 1. First Degree: UV burn, epidermis damaged, unable for it to function now (protective layer) 2. Second Degree: completely destroyed epidermis, and damaging dermis, infection, fluid loss occurs 3. Third Degree: leave it looking black, damage fat, all the way down to subcutaneous layer, fluid loss occurs Cancer of Epithelia (Carcinoma): fastest growing cancer in western hemisphere, name of carcinoma refers to where abnormal cell growth occurs • Basal: in basal layer but not in melanocytes, common, cells will push towards surface and die, need to be removed but not too bad • Squamous Cell Kytocytes in Stratus Spinosum: controllable, cells are dying, begnin tumors, common, good recovery rate • Melanoma: overgrowth of melanocytes, milgnant, spreads throughout the body, when mole/freckle grows larger then 4mm, consult physician, turning point to milgnant, abnormal shape/colour/size are all signs September 20 Lecture Appendicular Skelton: upper extremity, lower extremity, girdles • Girdles: shoulder (collar bone, scapula), pelvic/hip (less mobile then shoulder girdle) • Bones are a storage medium, containing calcium, phosphorous, and blood, also fat in long bones Bone Density Changes over Life • 0-20: females reach 80% of bone density in comparison to males, very good • 40: men are 100%, females 90% • 50: females lose ability to increase bone density after menopause, causes increased risk of breaks • 70: men at 80%, women at 40% (very bad) A: normal B: predisposing factors (lack of exercise, nutrition...) C: post menopause intervention. You can change curve B to C even if you start exercising at menopause The Role Bones Play • Provides a framework that supports the body • Provides sites for muscle attachment • Protective covering for certain organs and regions of the body (thoracic/pelvic cavity) • Certain bones contain red bone marrow which produces new red blood cells (hempoietic tissue) o In bones that are flat (hip bones), where you would do a bone marrow transplant o Long bones contain yellow bone marrow (fat) • Bone acts as storage medium and “buffer” for calcium in the blood – maintains proper blood pH. Will leak out calcium if necessary Types of Bone: classified according to the type of bone tissue 1. Compact bone: solid, outside 2. Spongy bone: trabecular, web like, porous, inside Or classified by their general morphology 1. Long Bone: femur, metacarpels, humerus 2. Short Bone: in wrist and ankle 3. Flat Bone: skull, breast plate (sternum) 4. Irregular Bone: vertebrae 5. Sesamoid: sits within a tendon, patella, pisiform in palm Compact: the Osteon • Cavity in the middle of bone: yellow bone marrow inside, lightens the bone in comparison to a solid bone, gives us more mobility but increases risk of fracture • Many osteons in bone, pillars, each have multiple rings (concentric lamellae), layered around central canal • Collagen fiber orientation is perpendicular – it resists separation, twisting fractures, and cracked propagation (movement of crack through the bone) The Axial Skeleton: skull, vertebral column, bone thorax Skull: light, flat, thin • Brains protective shell – shape distributes its force • Joined by sutures (articulations), not stitches but fibrous joints. • Synarthrodial articulations (vs amphi and di), very strong and immovable • Contain foramina for passage of nerves and vessels – holes, 85 in skull • True Foramina: surrounded by bone • False Foramina: not completely enclosed by bone, sometimes ligaments complete it September 25 Lecture Cranium: 8 large bones including frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid • Cranium bones make up the cranial cavity, facial bones don’t contribute to cranial cavity, they make up the face Bones of Cranium • Parietal Bone: named because it resembles wall, 2/3 of superior cranial cavity (roof), Sagittal suture • Frontal: makes up forehead and superior portion of eye, last 1/3 of roof, frontal suture (coronial) • Occipital: interpretation of sight, cerebellum lies in occipital bone (not the occipital lobe), external occipital protuberance serves as an attachment for ligamentum luche, trapezius also attaches here • Temporal Bone: houses cavity for ear, name comes from “tempus” which means time – grey hair? o contains zygomatic process (cheek bone) o mastoid process is a bump behind ear o styloid process: attachments for ligaments/muscles, has a column structure, could easily be broken • Sphenoid Bone: like a bat, has a large wing span, one long bone • Ethmoid: superior surface of nasal cavity, inferior surface of cranial cavity, cube shaped • Pterion: point of articulation between sphenoid, parietal, and temporal bones o “boxers temple”: weak spot, behind it lies a small middle menegial artery, if damaged will leak blood in brain Facial Bones: majority of bones in face are paired • Mandible: strong, houses lower teeth, not paired • Maxillae: houses upper teeth, two bones, meets together in the middle under nose • Lacrimal: paired, lies on medial (eye) orbit, contains a small indentation called lacrimal fossa – has a small hole where the tear duct lies • Nasal: paired, what you break from a broken nose • Concha: snail-like, paired, AKA inferior nasal concha, penetrate into nasal cavity o Helps swirl/direct air, reduce dead space, warms/moistens air, traps foreign material in the mucous membrane that lines it • Vomer: concha bone but doesn’t have swirl, unpaired, creates inferior portion of septum (cartilage and boney portion that separates the two nasal cavities) • Zygomatic: cheek, articulates with temporal bone that includes zygomatic process (Mid) Sagittal View • Ethmoid: has three processes (superior concha, middle concha, and perpendicular plate) o Part of cranial bone o Separate from inferior nasal concha and vomer – those are facial bones o Perpendicular plate articulates to vomer and forms the septum o Collectively they all (superior, middle, perpendicular, inferior, vomer) work to decrease dead nasal space • Palatine: paired, form the posterior portion of the hard palate (roof of mouth), the soft palate is behind the hard.. initiates gag reflex Overall 14 facial bones, 8 cranial bones = 22 bones in skull Facial and Associated Bones • Hyoid bone: moon shaped, sits behind jaw, important for speech and swallowing • Malleus ossicle: hammer Music pounds off of ear drum (tempanic membrane), moves to • Incus ossicle: anvil • Stapes ossicle: stirrup malleus, then incus, then stapes, stapes connects to inner ear, causes vibration in cochlea Cranial Fossa • anterior fossa: highest, contains frontal lobe and ethmoid bone • Middle fossa: temporal lobes • Posterior fossa: lowest step, cerebellum Canal: can’t see through, deep hole Foramen: can see through, not very deep Foramen of the Skull • Superior surface of ethnoid bone is the cribriform plate, has a series of holes so the olfactory nerve can send fibres through so they can extend down to nasal cavity o Crista galli: named from crown of rooster, attaches to the faliz cerebri ligament that anchors the brain • Sphenoid bone o Greater wing: middle fossa, contains:  foramen rotundum where the maxillary nerve runs through  Foramen ovale: mandibular nerve runs through, innervates chewing muscles  Foramen spinosum: houses middle mengial artery  Foramen lacerum: accessory foramen gial o Lesser wing: anterior fossa, contains optic foramen where the optic nerve runs through o Sella Turcica: small depression, named after Turkish salad, where pituitary gland sits • Posterior fossa contains the: o Jugular foramen: vagus nerve runs through, glossopharyngeal nerve, and accessory nerve o Jugular magnum: it’s big 12 Cranial Nerves Trigeminal Nerve (V): consists of three nerves, the mandible, maxillae, and third isn’t important now Run through  jugular foramen Fissures: look like a slash in the bone, not foramen • Ocularmotor and abducts nerves • These two are connected to one another th September 27 Lecture Concha’s, crista galli, and cribriform plate are all structures on the ethmoid bone. Anterior view of the vertebral column looks straight Lateral view shows the curvatures – weird for a protective structure (stacking boxes) • Not as stable, but allows mobility Cervical (7): neck Thoracic (12): interacts with ribs to create thoracic cage Total: 26 after adolescence Lumbar (5): larger, supports upper body, small of 33 before adolescence lower back Sacral (5): articulates with hip bones, fuse to one in adolescence Coccyx (3-5): not very functional, used to be for tails, fuse to one Cervical/Lumbar: they are concave posteriorly Thoracic/Sacrococcygeal: convex posteriorly *opposite if you look at anteriorly Primary Curvatures: thoracic/sacrococcygeal, exist at birth Secondary Curvatures: begin to take shape after birth, cervical forms when baby is able to hold up neck, lumbar forms when baby starts to walk Problematic Curves • Lordosis: common in young girls, exaggeration in lumbar region, belly sticks out • Kyphosis: hunchback, exaggeration in thoracic • Scoliosis: from anterior view it looks like your front is in an S shape Typical Vertebrae: if it doesn’t have one of the main structures they are called atypical vertebrae • Typical cervical vertebrae (C3-C7), atypical cervical vertebrae (C1-C2) Human (vertebral arch) standing on a ball (body) with arms and legs (processes on arch) Body: weight bearing region, contains discs (helps compression) Vertebral Foramen: true foramen, where the spinal cord lies Pedicle: “little feet” Lamina: act like the shoulders Spinous process: adjacent to lamina, posterior Transverse Process: separates lamina and pedicle Superior Articular Process: articulates with vertebrae above it, hyaline cartilage on it Inferior Articular Process: articulates with vertebrae under it, hyaline cartilage on it In between vertebrae: spinal nerves branch off to innervate different organs/muscles/etc Intervertebral Disks • Inside of it is the nucleus pulposus (like a stress ball) can squish it and it will come back • Annulus Fibrosus: organized rings of fibers, keeps the ‘jelly’ in the middle, annulus (means all the way around) • Posteriorly: the fibrous material doesn’t completely join back around, when there is too much pressure the nucleus pulposus breaks through annulus fibrosus (herniated disk) Herniated Disk: causes pressure on the spinal nerve and therefore causes pain. There are no sensory nerves on IVD or else it would hurt every time you moved/walked. Nerves can grow, when fibrosus pushes against nerve, the nerve can grow into nucleus pulposus. THIS will cause much pain every time you move. Surgery will burn away nerve fibers grown in pulposus Not all vertebrae are created equally • Structurally and functionally different Cervical Vertebrae: bifurcated (fort) spine – spinous process • Body is small, not much weight to hold (anterior) • Facet: articulate with above • Transverse foramen: only cervical have these, they protect the vertebral artery (arterial artery is big one we can feel, not here) • Identify top and bottom: direction of the spinous process – mostly points inferiorly. • Look for direction of facets on articular process o Superior articular process: will always face posteriorly o Inferior articular process: facets will face anteriorly • Vertebral artery brings blood to circle of willis, and arterial arty does too. Willis provides blood to brain. If you cut carotid artery, clamp it, and the vertebral arteries can still continue blood flow October 2 Lecture Exam: October 23 (Tuesday) – information up to the end of joints. Lots of diagrams – identify ligaments/bones. True/false, multiple multiples, 1 minute per question, 90-100 questions. In class Cervical Vertebrae: C1 (atlas): atypical, the “yes bone”, no body • Skull has occipital condyles (rounded portion of occipital bone) that sit in superior articular facets pockets • Skull is able to rock back and forth within this “pocket” – allows nodding of head (reason for the name yes bone) C2 (axis): atypical, the “no bone”, point of spinous process is bifurcated, contains a strange body called a dens. • Dens is the body of C1 • Transverse vertebral ligament creates a ring. Pinnit joint between C1 and C2. • “No bone” from the movement between C1 and C2 (horizontal rotation) • Potential for dens to go into the spinal cord without the ligament. In a sensitive area, don’t get hit from behind/dive into pool Controversial if they contain a spinous process or not. Thoracic Vertebrae • All typical, hard to tell from one another • Body is heart shaped (or kidney shaped) • Creates a much more circular vertebral foramen • Intervertebral notch (not inferior vertebral notch): creates inter vertebral foramen – false foramen, so spinal cords can exit into periphery • Presence of facets that allow for the articulation of the ribs • Demifacets: Small superior and inferior facets – half facets Either/Or • Costal Facets: one complete facet that the rib attaches to one vertebrae • Rib/Transverse Costal Facet • Can laterally flex the body because articulation between inferior facet and superior facet are in the coronial plane Rib orientation on thoracic vertebrae • T2/T3 contain demifacets, head of rib #3 attaches to both vertebrae • Rib #3 will articulate with the transverse process of T3 • Rib #3 and #4 will articulate with T3. (#4 head with the inferior demifacet of T3) • T2-T8 have multiple demifacets • T1 and T9 have only one demifacet • T10-T12: have one costal facet (10,11,12 ribs articulate with T10, T11, T12) • Rib 1-9 articulate with multiple vertebrae, 10-12 with only one vertebrae Lumbar Vertebrae • Thick bodies allow for the weight of the upper body • Large vertebral arches • Spinous process: hatchet-like, very horizontal – must look at articular facets • Large muscles attach to spinous process and transverse process • Vertebral foramen is very triangular • Superior articular facet (faces posteriorly/medially); interior articular facet (faces anteriorly/laterally): more in the Sagittal plane. Allows for extension and flexion (forward and backward) – hyaline cartilage on this Fused Vertebrae • Contain true foramen because they are fused and surrounded fully by bone • Transverse ridges seen on the anterior side • Medial Sacral Crest down centre of posterior sacrum • Lateral Sacral Crest: where transverse processes fused together , both sides • L5 needs to articulate to sacrum: S1 superior articular process faces posterior Posterior Anterior Associated Structures: Ligamentum • Used to stabilize bones together • Supraspinous ligament: runs the entire length of the vertebral column, stops spinous process from fish tailing. Very thick ligament o Ligamentum nucha: runs from T12 all the way up to skull. Attaches to skull on neutral lines and all the spinous process • Anterior Longitudinal Ligament: runs entire length, prevents hyperextension of the vertebrae • Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: runs entire length of vertebral column, prevents hyper flexion • Interspinous Ligament: runs in between spinous processes, very short • Ligamentum Flavum: crosses the lamina from one vertebrae to next, short (named flavum for its yellow colour) • IVD: withstand compressive force of spine. Anterior/posterior Longitudinal ligaments keeps the IVD in place • Question mark: the vertebral canal created by vertebral foramen • False intervertebral foramen: black dots The Axial Skeleton: Rib Cage • Rib cage composed of sternum, ribs, and costal cartilages • Sternum: manubrium, body, xiphoid process • 12 pairs of ribs o 1-7 are true because they connect to sternum by costal cartilage, own articulation with the sternum o 8-12 are False: 8,9,10 attach to costal cartilage of 7 o 11 and 12 float (false) o 8-12 gives us more mobility Sternum • Manubrium: top portion, contains jugular notch o Jugular notch lies at IVD of T2 and T3. Where the great vessels leave the heart (aorta/vena cavas) • Sternal Angle: joint between manubrium and body that allows slight movement. Deep breath allows body to move outwards using this joint. Between T3 and T4 – top of heart, can listen of valves opening and closing • Xiphoid Process: bottom portion, when you’re over 30 you have pure bone. Therefore can potentially break the xiphoid process and penetrate the heart • Xiphisternal junction: level of T9, bottom of the heart • Costal Angle: hyaline cartilage, costal refers to rib, joins the rib to the sternum Typical Rib Structure: • Ribs 9-2 articulate with multiple vertebrae • Tubercles: bump that muscles attach to • In between the tubercle and the head is the neck • Tubercle articulates with the transverse process • Angle: after tubercle, sharp turn to sternum • Costal Groove: interior of the rib, space where the intervertebral vessels/nerve lies • Costal Cartilage: costochondral joint between rib and sternum, abrupt change, just hyaline • cartilage Atypical Rib Structure: 1, 11, 12 • Rib 1: arteries rest on this rib, creates impression, often say it doesn’t have a body/shaft, very small size • Rib 11/12: atypical because they don’t have any costal cartilage October 4 Lecture The Appendicular Skeleton Upper Girdle • Pectoral Girdle: Clavicle and Scapula • Humerus • Radius and Ulna: both contribute to elbow joint • Carpal bones and bones of hand (metacarpals) Lower • Pelvis girdle: pubis, ilium, ischium • Femur • Tibia and Fibula: only tibia contributes to knee joint • Tarsal cones and bones of foot (metatarsals) Pectoral Girdle (shoulder girdle) • Scapula: floating bone, lies on back and is very moveable, allows for much mobility of the shoulder joint, no articulation of the scapula to the axial skeleton – so not very strong • Clavicle: does articulate to axial skeleton on the manubrium of the sternum, only articulating point of the upper extremity to the axial skeleton • Acromion process of scapula: continuation of spine of scapula, articulation point of clavicle and scapula • Connected via one joint – sternoclavicular joint Sternoclavicular Joint: must be very strong • Interclavicular ligament: Fibrocartilage there to res
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