Chapter1FN1021 notes.odt

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Western University
Foods and Nutrition
Foods and Nutrition 1021

CHAPTER 1FOOD CHOICES AND HUMAN HEALTH Nutrition is a relatively new scienceFirst vitamin discovered in 1897 and last in 1948What is foodAn edible substance with physical and chemical propertiesAn acceptable substance Based on preference personal cultural social etcProvides energynutrients to allow body to stay alivegrow medicalNutrition is The study of nutrients in foods and in the body The study of human behaviour related to foodDiet is The foods and beverages that a person consumesNutrients are Are components of food needed for body functionsProvide energy serve as building material maintainrepair body parts support growthdevelopmentThe 6 classes of nutrients Water carbohydrates fat protein vitamins mineralsOrganic means anything that contains carbon according to its chemical definition Water and mineral are the only inorganic nutrients out of all 6 classes Carbohydrates4 caloriesgramProtein4 caloriesgramFat lipid9 caloriesgramAlcohol contributes 7 caloriesgram for energy use onlyNot classified as a nutrient because it does not provide any essential building blocks for the bodyInterferes with growth maintenancerepair of body tissuesEssential nutrients Received from foods only body cant make themDietary supplements Purified nutrients pills powders liquids They are made my isolating a particular nutrient and sold IE Iron pills Branch Amino Acids BCAsElemental diets Purified ingredients of known chemical composition supply essential nutrients to those who cant eat foods support life but not optimal growthhealthNonnutrients Other compounds present in foods phytochemicals antioxidants eg burning taste in hot peppers pungent flavor in garlic red color of tomato green color of spinach The health benefits for these nonnutrients are yet to be fully discoveredWHY DO WE EAT WHAT WE EATEmotional stimulation Psychological effectsHALF Happy AnxiousAnger Loneliness Fear Hormonal stimuli Digestive track stimulation There are several hormones linked to digestion Some of these hormones send cues to the brain to announce that the body needs food Others tell the brain when the stomach is full and to stop eating These include Leptin and Grehlin signals to the brain that you are hungryPhysical psychological social philosophical factorsTaste food characteristicsPersonal preference age gender body weight habitHealth physical condition weightSocialpeer pressure parental attitudesAdvertising availability geographic locationPhysical psychological social philosophical factors contSocioeconomic status convenience food pricesPositive associations familiarity emotional comfortValues beliefs selfconcept If we view ourselves as healthy we may eat healthierNutritional value nutrition knowledgeCulturalsocial meaningsCuisineethnic style of cookingFoodwayscultures habits customs beliefspreferences about food how does a specific culture view and eat foodEthnic foodsassociated with a particular cultural subgroup within a populationOmnivores vs vegetarianslifestyle choicesSOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF FOODAestheticcreative satisfaction Special dishestreats dinner parties banquetsMaternalpaternal satisfactionCooking for the family caring connectionFulfilling socialkinship obligations demonstrating friendliness or love Family meals tea time coffee breaks eating out romantic dining gifts of foodInterpersonal acceptance ingroup activityTeenage food habits diet fadsPrestige statuspolitical power Display of foodswines cocktail parties large dinner parties banquetsEconomic purposesuse of food as currency influencing behavior of othersBusiness dinners gifts in return for services bartering rewards punishmentRecreation adventure humor Pleasure of eating with friends consuming unusual foods picnics barbeques midnight feastsRelieving tension security
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