Chapters 1-11 Notes.docx

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Department
Foods and Nutrition
Course
Foods and Nutrition 1021
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
FN 1021Lecture 1Nutrition is the study of how foodnutrients nourishes the bodyThe study of nutrition is to find the optimal nutrition to reach physical and emotional benefitsFood is any substance the body can take in and assimilate source of nutrients A diet is the food a person or community normally eats and drinksNutrients are the components of food required for the bodys normal functioningRoles are to provide energyfunctioning of organs and tissues to build material maintenance and repair of proteins and support growth and developmentNutrients are broken down into 6 categoriesWaterjointsCarbohydratespreferred source of fuelFatinsulation and long term energy protects organs cell membraneProteinamino acids muscle tissue repair maintenance growth enzymes acidbase balance electrolytefluid balance energy doesnt want to be used as an energy sourceVitaminshealthy blood skin protection cellular role in everyday life no energy but drives processes of breaking down carbohydratesMinerals Zn Fe Castructural support haemoglobin tissue growth and acidbase balanceCarbohydrates are the preferred source of energy for brain and nerve cells fat is concentrated form of energyEssential nutrients are nutrients that the body cannot produce itself and must therefore come from food to prevent nutrient deficiencies water some amino acids and some lipidsFood energy is measured in calories units of heat amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a L of water by one degree CelsiusCarbohydrates4 Protein4 Fat9 Alcohol7Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDR healthy range of intake of carbohydrates fat and protein healthy range to reduce disease but allow for essential nutrientsEating too high or too low increases risk of chronic disease4565 carbohydrates2035 fat1035 proteinFactors that influence our day to day food choices availability frozen fruits have more nutrients then fresh ones in the winter sociocultural factorsbeliefs habits preferences personal attitudes power of advertising in affecting food choices fast food based off history taste satisfying Comfort control weight prevent diseaseFoods consumed have a cumulative effect on your body effects become obvious with ageMalnutrition can be nutrient deficiencies imbalances or excessesDiet plays a role in preventing and managing chronic disease chronictakes awhile to develop genetic component lifestyle component cancer heart disease type 2 diabetes osteoporosisGenetics and individualitylifestyle habits have varying affects on diseaseSome are purely hereditary the course of diseases can be influenced by diethelp manage the course of the disease Huntingtons downs syndrome sickle cellSome diseases are often the result of nutrition based factors anaemia scurvy liver disease severe energy and protein deficienciesSome disease are influenced to a greater or lesser extent by both genetics and nutritionOther factors that affect health other diet consist of tobacco use alcohol use substance abuse physical activity sleep stress and condition at home and workair quality prescribed drugs also have an affect on the absorption of nutrientsNutritional genomics is the science of how nutrition influences gene activityexpression of genes and how genes affect the activity of nutrientsHolds the promise of more precisely determining thenutrient needs of an individual with a diseaseFetal origins of human disease pregnant mothers diet and its affect on the unborn child obesity type 1 diabetesAchieving nutritional health does not just depend on the individual foods you chooseThe way you combine them into mealsThe way you arrange meals to follow one after another over days and weeksRestricting calories you often fall short of getting all the required nutrientsSupplements you get the nutrients but not he calories better nutrients when found in foodDietary supplements consist of pills liquids or powders that contain purified nutrients cannot be used in the place of food because food offers more than the 6 basic nutrientsElemental diets are composed of purified ingredients of known chemical compositionIntended to supply all essential nutrients to people who cannot eat foodsSynergistic effects of nutrients combined is healthier digestion and absorptionElemental diets lack fibre and not in physiological form liquid not working at highest performanceNot superior to real foodsEssential to help sick people survive but no enable people to thrive over long periods of timeCan lead to medical complicationsWhen administer through veins the diets are short livedNatural health products regulations are deined as vitamins minerals herbal remedies phytochemicals homeopathic medicines traditional medicines probiotics amino acids and EFAsProducts must be safe for consideration as an OTC product8 digit product licensepreceded by letter NHP product must be reviewed by HC for safetyquality and health claimsPhytochemicals are nonnutrients derived from plants that have biological function in the bodyprotective against some diseaseHave antioxidant properties mimic hormonal activity alteration of blood constituents flavonoids phytosterolds lignans lycopene organosulfur compoundsChemicals derived from plantsFlavonoids are from soy chocolate and teaLignans are whole grainsLycopene is tomatoesOrganosulfur is broccoliFunctional foods give psychological benefitsProbiotics change gut flora and put in good bacteriaHave the ability to alter bodyPrinciples of a nutritious dietAdequacy does it provide all essential nutrientsBalanceprovide nutrients in proper amountsCalorie controlexcess calories is gain weight lacking loosing weight and risk nutrient deficienciesModerationVariety wont stick with diet if it does not have a varietyNutrient density is the measurement of nutrients per calorie of food
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