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Atmospheric Processes.docx

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Western University
Geography 1100
D.Kim Holland

AdiabaticAir - Stable / UnstableAir - Points to remember about stability in air: - Air always rises at DryAdiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR) or falls at Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SALR) o SALR is always 100% humidity 2 o Air NEVER rises or falls at the Environmental Lapse Rate  The temperature of the surrounding environment - Stable air is failing air - Unstable air is rising air - To test for stability compare moving air to the ELR - If moving air is colder than ELR then air will fall - If moving air is warmer than ELR then air will rise *Balloon at peak of DALR will fall because it is colder than the ELR *Balloon at peak of SALR will fall because it is colder than the ELR *Balloon at peak of SALR will rise because air is warmer than ELR *Balloon at peak of DALR will rise because air is warmer than ELR *Balloon at peak of DALR will sink because air is colder than ELR *Balloon at peak of SALR will rise because air is warmer than ELR Temperature / Stability - Cools at DALR till 1000m - At 1000m air becomes saturated, so moves from DALR to SALR - From 0 to 1100m air is stable because DALR / SALR is colder than ELR - From 1100m to 2200m air is unstable because SALR is warmer than ELR Humidity - At ground 7gm / kg, relative humidity = 50% - At 1000m 7gm / kg RH = 100% - RH =Actual vapor density / saturation vapor density - As temperature gets warmer (down the 2 SALR line) RH decreases Atmospheric Circulation and Winds - Always in motion - Striving to remove the imbalance in temperature and pressure - Newton’s Laws of Motion o 1. First Law “A body continues to maintain its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force”. Newton’s first law is often known as the Law of Inertia o 2. Second Law “F = ma: The net force on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration” o 3. Third Law “To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction” Forces acting on the air - Two opposing forces which act on a vertically moving parcel of air are an upward buoyant force and a downward gravitation force - Pressure Gradient Force (PGF) - The resultant of 2 forces acting in different directions. The length of the lines are proportional to the strength of the other forces PGF and CF - PGF: Pressure Gradient Force - CF: Coriolis
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