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Department
Geography
Course
Geography 1100
Professor
D.Kim Holland
Semester
Fall

Description
Climate Change 11-03-15 2:24 PM Pg. 75-79 Karst Topography refers to a large limestone region marked by sinkholes, caverns, and underground streams. Glaciers • Agent that causes erosion and deposition to occur. • Form in places that annual snowfall is greater than snowmelt. • A glacier is a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or spreading outward on land surface. • Firn: non-melting accumulating snow, can flow/move from gravity. oSnow in snow banks, granule ice • In summer, snow line retreats oFirn line: eqm point of accumulation and melting. • • Snow/ice picks up dirt and can erode Retreating moraine- glaciers are shrinking • Positive balance: accumulation balance.. for a glacier to grow it must be positive. • Negative balance: ablation (melting) balance • Upper glacier: “brittle”/fractures • Lower glacier: “plastic” • 10% of earth’s land is under ice. • Permafrost: a permanently frozen layer of ground that can be as much as 1500 meters deep. oCan be continuous or discontinuous depending on the surface and amount of water. • Glacier trough: a deep u-shaped valley visible only after the glacier had receded. • Tarns: small lakes in the hollowed out depressions of a cirque. • Outwash plain: a gently sloping area in front of a melting glacier. oGreat alluvial fans oCover a wide area and provide new parent material for soil formation. Waves, currents, and coastal landforms • If land at the cost is well above seal level, the wave action causes cliffs to form. • Beaches are formed by the deposition of sand grains contained in the water. • Long shore currents, move roughly parallel to the shore, transport the sand, forming beaches and spits. • Sandbars are formed from the backwash of waves that take away sand oIf sandbars become extensive they can form lagoons or inlets. • Coral reefs are made from coral organisms growing in shallow tropical water. • Atolls are reefers formed in shallow water around volcanoes. Wind • In dry climates, wind is a powerful agent of erosion and deposition. • Many sculptures in dry areas are made from mechanical weathering. • “Dust Bowl” in 1930’s Oklahoma, Texas and Colorado. • Barchan is one of the most distinctive sand desert dunes- crescent shaped. • Loess is a wind-deposited material, silty in texture. Located in midlatitude westerly wind belts. Pg. 119-124 Climate Change Long Term Climate Change oTwo major climatic periods in the past 1000 years. §Medieval warm period (800-1200 AD) úemperatures were warmer than they are now §“little ice age” (1300-1850 AD) úrctic ice expanded, glaciers advances, drier areas of the earth were desiccated, and crop failures and starvation were common. oShape of earth’s orbit around the sun §aries from nearly circular to more elliptical over a period of about 100,000 years. §hen circular, the earth experience relatively cold temperatures §hen elliptical, as it is now, the earth is closer to the sun for several months, is exposed to more total solar radiation, and this is has higher temperatures. o Tilt of earth’s axis relative to the orbital plane §ilt varies from 21.5 degrees to 24.5 degrees every 41,000 years. §mount of solar radiation striking polar regions changes as the angle of tilt changes. §ow tilt, more perpendicular, is accompanied by periods of cooler climate, which are critical for forming ice sheets. o Earth wobbles slightly as it rotates §his changes the earth’s orientation to the sun §he gyration of the rotation axis repeats every 23,000 years. §hen tilt is greatest, the polar regions receive less solar radiation than they do at other times and become colder. Short Term Climatic Change o Volcanic eruptions can alter climates for several years. §he stuff that they spit out, can block some of the incoming solar radiation that normally would reach the earth’s surface, producing a cooling effect. ú1816 “year without a summer” in New England • snow fell in June, caused by Indonesian volcano Tambora. 1883 Krakatoa, Indonesia volcano ú ú1991 Mo•nt Pinatubo, Philippines lowered average global temperatures by about 0.5 degrees. o Alterations in patterns of oceanic circulation §l Nino úWarm surface waters from the western Pacific Ocean more eastward, changing the climate along the western coasts of South and North America. o Sunspot activity §elatively cool regions on the surface of the sun, vary number and intensity over periods of years. úThey affect both the output of solar energy and concentrations of ozone in the earth’s upper atmosphere. The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming o Human beings contributing to climatic change through the greenhouse effect. §ertain gases concentrate in the atmosphere, where they function as insulating barrier, trapping infrared radiation that would otherwise be radiated back into the upper atmosphere and reradiating in earthward. §an increase temperatures (global warming) o Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) §ade up of thousands of scientists from about 120 countries reported in May 2007 that they were very concerned about rising CO2 levels. o CO2 is the primary greenhouse gas, whose amount has been increased by human activities. §evels are rising from increasing emissions of fossil fuels. úDeforestation • Fewer trees to capture CO2 and produce oxygen. • Burning wood sends CO2 back into atmosphere at an accelerated rate. §5% contribution to global warming. o Other important greenhouse gases influenced by human activity are: §ethane úFrom natural gas and coal mining, agriculture and livestock, swamps, and landfills. §itrous oxides úrom cars, industry, fertilizers §hlorofluorocarbons, hydroflurocarbons, and perflurocarbons úndustrial chemicals o Temperatures have rose about 0.6 degrees o Winter temperatures in the Arctic have risen 4 degrees, since 1950’s. o Arctic is losing ice cap o Glaciers are tinning and retreating on every continent o Increase sea temperatures o Changes in precipitation patterns Soils and Economic Geography 11-03-15 2:24 PM Soil Notes from Textbook: Soils •Soil erosion: the removal of soil particles, usually by wind or running water, is as natural a process as soil formation, and it occurs even when land is totally covered by forests or grass. • The rate of soil formation equals or exceeds the rate of soil erosion. •Topsoil eventually disappears from soil erosion. •Farming skills create ways to preserve and even improve the soil resource. •Desertification: the expansion or intersification of areas of degraded or destroyed soil and vegetation cover; it usually occurs in arid and semiarid environments. Climate change is often a contributing cause. oAfrica is most at risk. •Salinization: is the concentration of salts in the topsoil as a result of the evaporation of surface water. It occurs in poorly drained soils in dry climates, where evaporation exceeds precipitation. As water evaporates, some of the salts are left behind to form a white crust of the surface of the soil. Wetlands • Wetlands: vegetated land surfaces that are periodically or permanently covered by or saturated with standing water. oBest known: Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia and the bayous of Louisiana and Missisippi. oTwo categories of wetlands: §nland úogs, marshes, swamps, floodplains adjacent to rivers. §oastal úresh or saltwater úeritic zone •Nutrients flowing into oceans from streams and rivers, so that vegetation and a great variety of aquatic life can flourish. •Depends on the esturine zone: the relatively narrow area of wetlands along coastlines where salt water and fresh water meet and mix. •Perform many important roles: oTrapping and filtering silt, pollutant, and nutrients that rivers bring downstream. oBreeding zone for many species. oAbsorb floodwaters and help stabilize shorelines by providing barriers to coastal erosion. •Clean Water Act of 1972 oGave wetlands a measure of federal protection. oProhibits the filling of wetlands without a permit issued by the USCOE. Fo Notes from Lecture: Definition: Soil: a dynamic, natural, 3 dimensional body on the surface of the earth composed of mineral, organic materials, and living forms. The properties of soils are due to the integrated effects of climate and living matter acting upon parent material, as conditioned by relief(soil at top or bottom of slope) over periods of time. Soil is defined as the naturally occurring, unconsolidated mineral or organic material at least 10 cm thick that occurs at the earth’s surface and is capable of supporting plant growth. Weathering The alteration of mineral and or organic material by chemical (decomposition) and physical (disintegration) processes. Materials weather because they are responding to changes in conditions ex. A rock is formed under high temperatures, high pressure, low O2 and liquid water then if the rock is found on the surface it experiences low temperatures, low pressure, high o2 and liquid water. Weather is very important to soil formation for it creates parent material. Physical Weathering o Disintegration o Not chemically changing the rock, just breaking it up into smaller pieces. o Creates silt size particles (50-20 microns in size) Sand size particles, clay size particles § Chemical Weathering o Decomposition o Gives us even smaller particles §lay size (2 microns) o Primary à secondary minerals o Oxides, carbonates, sulfates o Clays- most important for soils. Clays §ery small in size (less than 2 um) §hape- plate like- very large surface area §ositive and negative charges on its surface §hemical activity cation exchange capacity (CEC) úigh values for CEC= high soil fertility. §nions (negative charged ions) §ations (positively charged ions) Represents fertility úVery water soluble ú úlays a•low the cations to be attracted to the clay Root gets close to clay and releases H+ ions, and clays give off other ions that the root slurps up. Factors Controlling Soil Formation •Climate o Temperature and precipitation §ontrol the type of plants o Scale macro (large area) o Micro (small area) •Organisms (plants and animals) o Vegetation micro flora o Soil micro fauna earthworms to bacteria o Animals o Human •Parent Materials o Bedrock to regolith o Transported materials • o Controls processes and the amount of time it takes for a soil process to occur Topography o Site conditions o Soil drainage o Relief •Time o Soil evolution o Pedogeneis or soil evolution is the process by which soil is created. oTakes many many years! •Formula oS= f(cl,o,r,p,t) §= soil properties §l= regional climate §= potential biota (organisims) §=topography (relief) §= parent material §=time Soil Texture •The basic structure •The amount of sand, silt and clay •(triangle diagram) • clay- goes through siv- then in a water thing, stir it all up, you will figure out size particles in a pipette pH •how acid or alkaline is the soil •low pH soils are organic soils •you could determine if the dirt was developed in a human environment structure •aggregate form Munsell Soil Colour Book •Reference system Pedogenesis •Eluviation- removal oThe removal of material from one area in soil to another area in the soil. o •Illuviation-deposition Soil Processes • Podzolization oPositive moisture balance and cool temperatures oOrganic matter at surface that breaks down and produces organic acids that absorbs certain ions (Iron and Aluminum) oFe and Al are illuviated from the soil (taken out) §hey are deposited in the B horizon oEluviated A, Illuviated B oPositive moisture balance- water moves through the system •Calcification oWarm-cool temperature oNo trees, some grasses oEqm moisture balance oWater isn’t moving actively downwards all the time •Gleization oPositive moisture balance oCool-cold temps oWater-logged environment Water is present all the time § oHeat develops oPlant matter doesn’t decompose oThis is a reducing environment oDon’t see reds and oranges, you see greys and blue greens. •Laterization oDon’t find in Canada oPositive moisture balance and hot temperatures o Organic litter on surface, this is quickly broken down by the critters that live on the surface §uickly recycled at the surface o Extracting Alumimum o Weathered soils o Everything that can weather, does and is removed. o Deep soil •Why Classify? o A means to understanding o Organizing a confusing world o Finding relationships •Units of Classifcation o Pedon §asic unit of soil §mallest 3D unit that can be considered a soil §oil would be homogeneous o Horizons § layer of soil approx parallel to the soil surface with distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming processes. A Horizon, B Horizon, C Horizon, R Horizon (slightly weathered rock) § §oil = A,B,C horizon §,B horizon = solum úas been modified by processes o Canadian soil classification system §arger to smaller area úrder (covers largest area) úreat group úub group úamily úeries úype (smallest surface expression) §anadian soil Orders úrunisolic •Brown earth, Bm horizon úheronzemic •Prairie, grassland soil úryosolic •Frozen úleysolic •Water logged •Greys and blue-green colour soils úuvisolic •Washed of clay, Bt horizon •Clay is depositied in B horizon (elluviated with clay) úrganic • High organic amounts úodzolic •Ae and Bf horizons movement of Fe and Al •B horizon where Fe and Al is deposited úegosolic •Youthful soils, little soil development •Little altered from the past úolonetzic •High salt amounts úertisolic •Black soils, rich in swelling clays, high CEC •Very fertile §reat Group, subgroups úrthic humic podzol §oil Horizons- Bf Soil Erosion (how soil is removed from the surface) •The wearing away of the land surface by running water, wind or ice. •Deflation= wind erosion of soil •Soil erosion is mainly affected by water and to a lesser extent wind •Water plays a very important role o Infiltration capacity §he maximum rate of movement of water cm/hr §easure the amount of water that can move into the soil. §igh: able to absorb lots of water in a small amount of time §hen water hits the surface it could úiffusion: go into the surface •Moves in the soil by transmission (usually downwards) úverland flow: move over the surface (initiates soil erosion) §actors that affect infiltration úature of surface •Porosity o Pore space o Holes between grains of soil o Sand large size o Clay small size •Permeability o Ability to transmit water o Linked pores that move water to one pore space to the next •Vegetation and organisims o High with many roots o Earthworms many channels úature of water input •Rainfall intensity o How much rainfall in an hour •Rainfall duration o Number of hours of rain •Time since last rain úeasonal •Season factors o Winter frozen ground o Summer dry soil •Significance of soil erosion o Surface soil removed (best for growing things) o Loss of natural fertility o Fines removed first highest fertility o Many farmers are cultivating subsoils o Results §arginal farmland increase §ertilizers increase §ost of food production increase §ater quality decrease §eservoir capacity decrease o Soil erosion and land use §eforestation §rops and agriculture practices §razing §rbanization o Factors influencing soil erosion §egetation (most important) §oil type (texture) §lope size (length and inclination) §ainfall (frequency and intensity) Soil Water System • Hygroscopic water: 1 molecule thick layer 31 to 10,000 atmosphere- vapour movement only oTightly held by soil particle oMeasured by atmospheres (higher the more tight) • Capillary water- 31 to 1/3 atmosphere oCan move by capillary particles oCan move through the soil • Field capacity- 1/3 atmosphere pressure (pore spaces are filled with water and are moving through the soil) oFine solid and high organic soils have higher field capacity • • Gravity water flows with gravitational gradient < 1/3 atmosphere pressure. 15 atmosphere: wilting point, plants begin to wilt. Universal Soil Loss Equation • A= R*K*S*C*P • A=soil loss tons/hectare/year • R= rainfall erosion index (frequency and intensity) • K= soil erodibility • S=slope (length and inclination) • C=plant cover • P=erosion control practice (practice in-place to reduce erosion) (contour plow?) Economic Geography • Is the study of the location, distribution, and spatial organization of economic activities across the Earth. • The brand of geography concerned with the production and distribution of commodities. • Therefore, economic geo is concerned with ideas about the location of economic systems. Key Players oAdam Smith (1723-1790) §upply and demand §ree enterprise capitalism §rote the book “wealth of nations” §nvisible hand of the market oDavid Ricardo (1772-1823) §hird child of 17 kids §he ‘dismal science’ §atural wage set by costs of subsistence §heory of comparative advantage. úf it has an advantage, it should produce what it produces the best at the cheapest. úrading Iron Law of Wages § Wages were determined by scarcity of workers and the costs of ú subsistence. An increased demand for labour brings forth in the long run, worker receive a natural wage set by the costs of subsistence. úompassion wasted on the working man, is damaging oKarl Marx (1818-1883) §apitalism is doomed §onflict (moral, economic, social) §abour theory of value §ommunists §Economic doctrine §Capitalism úuying in order to sell again in order to make profit §Profit úhe boss profit is surplus value úrofits go back to owners of capital, not to labour §Boss exploits workers úourgeoisie- class exploits úroletarian- class that works §To en exploitation §Class struggle §Proletarian revolution Workers of the world unite úYou have nothing to lose but your chains ú §Historical materialism úistory is made by people not by destiny or God úaterialism is the economic basis of society úow a society produces in order to survive. §Mode of productions úrimitive community- hunt and gather úlave state úeudal state úapitalism úocialist society úwidden • Type of agriculture • People go in a cut down trees and burn them, the burnt ash becomes fertilizer in following years. • Land becomes less and less fertile over time • These people move to new land, and become this process again • This is common in tropical rainforest environments • This can work, depending on the amount of people §Means of production úand úabour úapital úho owns them? úivisions of labour úower §Marxism assits us to ask tough questions about our society: úriticism with a critical eye §Das Kapital (Karl wrote this book) úhe worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and range. The worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he creates. • The worker and machineary are the same thing, one can be turned into another. • The things you are producing become cheaper and cheaper and you become cheaper and cheaper úabour produces not only commodities; it produces itself and the worker as a commodity- and does so in the proportion in which it produces commodities generally. •Developing an Economic Mindset oEconomic geographers identified economic problems and analyzed them in their own value terms oThe way we think about and analyze economic problems also depends on our world view o We can recognize three competing viewpoints: conservative, liberal, and radical. o Conservative §re convinces that a capitalist free enterprise economy allows individuals to achieve maximum personal liberty and material well being. §ost freedom to people §arket mechanisms of demand and supply work to satisfy consumer preferences. §he role of government in society should be limited to the maintenance of law and order to that capitalism can operate freely §ewer government regulations and programs would solve many national and international problems. o Liberal §hare with conservatives a faith in capitalism §nlike conservatives, however, they place a great emphasis on individual equality and social justice. §he state must intervene on behalf of every citizen whenever market mechanisms fail to meet basic human needs. §estern powers must be prepared to assist the world’s poor. o Radical §aintain that scholars must look at Marxist theory to interpret economic problems. §riticize conservatives and liberals because their analyses do no go to the root problem (economic structure) Argue that the dynamics of socioeconomic organization in capitalist societies § product particular kinds of class and institutional structure. §lasses and institutions formed by the capitalist mode of product “explain” a particular set of social problems that cannot be solved without changing the form of socioeconomic organization. o Chart- Alternative Viewpoints §onservative úuman nature •People are naturally unproductive and individualistic úork incentives •Very material, positive raise in income, negative unemployment úole of state •Only police power to maintain law and order to market can work freely Social change ú • Gradual change results from individuals interaction in the market place. §iberal úuman nature •People are naturally unproductive but of goodwill úork incentives •Essentially material: positive raise in income; negative unemployment úole of state •Police power and offsetting inadequacies in the economy whenever basic human needs are not achieved úocial change •Rapid change through government actions •Gov. programs for social change to occur fast Radical § úuman nature •People are natural productive and cooperative úork incentives •Non really necessary: social awards valuable úole of state •Police and economic power used to maintain and enhance capitalism úocial change •Revolutionary change through mass movement to transform society’s structure and values. •Application of Economic idea o Von Thunen Location Theory §on Thunen, 1826 Germany the Isolated State (wrote this book) §e owned lots of land §e was interested in why things are where they are in terms of agriculture production. §here seemed to be a pattern with the types of crops grown in relationship to where the cities were located. o 4 assumptions §ingle urban market, flat plain with an uniform environment, free exchange of all goods and services (conservative mindset- profit maximization) §tate’s economic system is freely competitive, max. Profits with supply and demand §ll land is equal in terms of on site production costs and productivity per unit area. §ne mode of transportation equal in all directions. o Distance played very important variable o The most important variable in this model that farmers consider is the cost of land versus the cost of transporting products to markets because their goal is to make the most profit. o The equation is: L= Y(P-C)-YDF §=locational rent §= yield, per unit of land §= market price of the crop per unit of yield §= production cost of the crop per unit of yield D= distance from the market §F= transport cost per unit of yield and unit of distance § § §ilk is the most costly to transport, therefore it has the steepest slope sell for 8$, but takes 4$ to get there. ú §ith this graph, you would chose to make milk, because you make the most money. •Grouping Economics Activities o Primary activities §griculture §athering industries §xtractive industries §esource extractive o Secondary activities §anufacturing §rocessing §onstruction §ower production o Tertiary activities §etail and wholesale trade §ersonal and professional services o Quaternary activities §nformation Research §management § §reindustrial úmost people were in agriculture §ver time úsecondary economic activities rose, industrial age, but since then it has decreases. útertiary has increased, especially in post industrial úquaternary has increased post industrial society. §his tells us úNot a lot of future jobs in primary economic activities, or secondary. úOpportunities in tertiary and quaternary §orldwide úNorth American and japan are not engaged in agriculture úIn Africa they are. •Weber Location Theory o Alfred Weber 1868-1958 o Theory of the Location of Industries, 1929 o Industrial Factories o Alfred Weber formulated a theory of industrial location in which an industry is located where the transportation costs of raw materials and final product is a minimum. o The theory has 5 assumptions. §ingle isolated political state with a homogeneous culture- an isotropic plain (flat uniform plain) The products are sold at a single market § §he number and combination of natural resources/raw materials vary in their distribution. §niform mode of transportation with cost increase directly with distance and weight, natural resources and finished products have equal transportation costs. §he distribution of labour/wage rates is restricted to certain locations, but supply at those sites is unlimited. o In Weberain analysis, the optimal location for a factory is largely dependent on the geographical availability of the raw material and on the weight loss characteristics of the raw material. §eight and distance gives the transportation value o ISOTIM- line of transportation cost o ISODAPANE- line of total transportation cost. Points of equal additional transport costs around the minimum total transport cost point. (sum or calculating aggregate of all isotims) o Definitions: §biquitous resource úThe resource is available everywhere úEx. Air §ocalized resource úThe resource is located at a particular place úEx. Gold mine §ross resource úWeight is lost in the manufacturing process úEx. It takes 9 tons of sugar beets to product one ton of sugar §ure resource úThere is no weight lost in the conversion of the raw material into a finished product Ex. Water to soft drink or bottle water. o ú Ex. § §wo resource sites and one market site §actory must be located at market OR resource sites. §1: 3 tons is required to produce 1 ton §2: 2 tons is required to produce 1 ton §he best place to locate the factory would be: ú1: 100 x 2 + 60 x 1= 260 ton km ú2: 100 x 3 + 80 x 1= 380 ton km ú: 60 x 3 + 80 x 2 = 340 ton km úe would locate at R1, were greatest weight loss occurs. o Varignon Frame §alculate where to locate something §nalogue model o Web looking thing §dd up the costs (dots) §sotims Sum of all the isotims at one point will be the isodapane o Affluenza §n unhappy condition of overload, debt, anxiety and waste resulting from the doffed pursuit of more, the disease of over consumption. Population Geography •Definition: spatial analysis in relation to environment variation •Demography: statistical study of population •People that live on the earth – 6.9 billion people o How much land would it take if each person gets 1 square metre §3 km •Fertility: reproductive performance •Mortality: number of deaths in population •Migration: permanently changing residence from one geographic location to another •FP= SP+B-D+I-O o FP= final population o Sp= starting population o B= births during period o D= deaths during period o I= in-migration during period o O= out-migration during period •Population Growth o 8000 BC = 5 million o 1800 = 1 billion o 1930= 2 billion o 1999= 6 billion o 2011= 7 billion o time that adds a billion, is decreasing •definitions o rate: frequency of occurrence §ex. Divorce rate o cohort: data to population group §ex. 5 years old o crude birth rate (CBR) §40,000/ 2,000,000 = 20 per 1000 §40 is high (Afghanistan), Niger (51.6) §8.8 is low (Singapore), Canada (10.3) o total fertility rate (TFR): number of births per women §15-44 years old 2.1 needed for replacement §shows growth § §if replacement rate is reached but is kept on being replaced, will still grow in the future. §This number is key to what the future population growth will be. §Across the globe, fertility rates are declining o crude death rate (CDR) (per 1000) §20+ high- Angola (24), Afghanistan (18) §<10 low – Canada (7.7), United Arab Emirates (2.1) §Today CDRs are not related to level of economic development o Infant Mortality Rate §Deaths age 1 year or less / 1000 births §Compare countries, regions, or societies §Directly related to how much a society is willing to spend on health, and a health system. §China’s one child policy 1978 úemale children aren’t as well cared for as male children ú •Problem: understanding exponential growth o Exponential growth occurs when the growth rate of a mathematical function is proportional to the function’s current value. §Ex. F(x)= 50x is not an exponential function § F(x)= x^3 or 2^x is an exponential function. •Doubling time o The amount of time required to double the number of a growing phenomena. We calculate it by: • §=70/ %growth per unit of time. •Soap and sanitation improve life expectancy Malthus o 1766-1984 o food production can be increased only arithmetically, §1,2,3,4, o whereas population has the potential to increase geometrically. §1,2,4,8,16 •technology o huntering-gathering §landscape can only support low populations o agriculture revolution §increased population o farming §op. Reached limit o industrial revolution §op. Increase o urbanization §op. Limit •demographic transition model o looks at fertility rates (birth and death) over time. o European model o The change from high fertility and high mortality to low fertility and high mortality • Why birth control failed in manupur o Punjab India •Population pyramids o Is an age structure diagram, that shows the distribution of various age groups (cohorts) o Dependency ratio: the number of dependents young and old that each 100 persons must support •Carrying capacity o Number of people who can be supported in a given area within natural resource limits, and without degrading the natural, social, cultural and economic environment for present and future generations. Pg. 66-68 Weathering Mechanical Weathering o The physical disintegration of earth materials at or near the surface o Larger rocks are broken into smaller pieces. o Don’t alter the chemical composition of the rock. o Three most important mechanical weathering §rost action úater soaks into a rock freezes, ice crystals grow and exert pressure on the rock. úhen process repeats, the rock begins to disintegrate. §alt crystals úry climates úroundwater is drawn to the surface by capillary action Evaporation leaves behind salt crystals that form, expand, and ú disintegrate rocks. §oot action úoots and plants find their way into rocks and break and disintegrate the rock. Chemical Weathering o The minerals composing rocks separate into component parts by chemical reaction rather than fragmentation. o Each depend on the availability of water, chemical weathering occurs less in dry and cold areas than in moist and warm ones. o Chemical reactions are accelerated in the presence of moisture and heat, so less chemical weathering occurs in cold, dry areas than in warm, moist ones. o Three most important chemical weathering processes: §xidation When oxygen combines with mineral components, such as iron, to form ú oxides. úome rock areas in contact with oxygen begin to decompose. §ydrolysis úhemical change that occurs, when water comes into contact with certain rock minerals such as aluminosilicates. §arbonation úhen carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere dissolves in water, a weak carbonic acid forms. úimestone Mass Movement oDown slope of movement of material due to gravity is called mass movement. Erosion Agents and Deposition oWind, water and glaciers, carve already existing landforms into new shapes. oRunning Water §he most important erosional agent. §epends on several factors Amount of precipitation úLength and steepness of the slope ú úind of rock and vegetative cover §mall particles, such as slay and silt, are suspended in water and constitute together with a material dissolved in the water or dragged along the bottom, the load of a stream. §ilt and sand accumulate at the intersections, creating deltas. §tream landscapes úsually in a balance between erosion and uplift of land. úost important is to know if the recent landscape was arid or humid. útreams in humid areas • Erosion process is greatly accelerated • Ex. Delaware, Connecticut, and Tennessee rivers. • Rounds landforms • Carve valleys that are wider than those in mountainous areas. • Floodplains form • Channels left behind as new ones are cut become oxbow lakes. o Crescent shaped and occupies the abandoned channel of a stream meander. Streams in arid areas ú • Lack of vegetation in arid regions greatly increase the erosion force of running water • Temporary lakes: playas • Alluvium (sand and mud) builds up in the lakes and at lower elevations, and alluvial fans are formed along hillsides. • Streams in arid areas are temporary • Carve deep, straight-sided arroyos. §roundwater únderground water accumulates, a zone of saturation called an aquifer forms. • Upper zone= water table. úaves- limestone Economic Geography 11-03-15 2:24 PM Notes from Textbook: Economic Geography: the study of how people earn their living, how livelihood systems vary by area, and how economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked. The Classification of Economic Activity and Economies Categories of Activity o View economic activity as ranged along a continuum of both increasing complexity of product or service and increasing distance from the natural environment. oPrimary activities §Those that harvest or extract something from the earth. §Beginning of the production cycle §Humans are in closest contact with the resources and potentialities of the environment. §Ex. Hunting, gathering, grazing, agriculture, fishing, forestry and mining. oSecondary activities §Those that add value to materials by changing their form or combining them into more useful, and therefore more valuable, commodities. §Ex. Copper smelting, steele making, metalworking, automobile production, the textile and chemical industries. Also included are the energy and construction industry. oTertiary activities §Those business and labour specializations that provide services to the primary and secondary sectors and goods and services to the general community and to the individual. §Ex. Professional, clerical, and personal services. §Constitute the vital link between producer and consumer §Wholesale and retail trade activities. §Internet sales oQuaternary activities §The processing and dissemination of information and administration and control of their own or other enterprises. §White collar professionals working in education, government, management, information processing, and research. oQuinary activities High-level decision making roles in all types of large organizations. § Types of Economic Systems oThree major types of systems: §Subsistence úoods and services are created for the use of the producers and their kinship groups. úittle exchange of goods and only limited need for markets. §Commercial úave become dominant in nearly all parts of the world úroducers or their agents in theory freely market their goods and services, the laws of supply and demand determine price and quantity úarket competition is the primary force shaping production decisions and distributions. Planned § ússociated with the communist-controlled societies that have now collapsed in nearly every country where they were formerly created or imposed. úroducers or their agents disposed of goods and services through governmental agencies that controlled both price and supply. úx. Cuba and North Korea Stages of Development o Key indicator was the degree of an economy’s industrialization and progression beyond a largely subsistence livelihood system. o “Big Push” concludes that underdeveloped economies can break out of poverty by § coordinated investment in both basic industries and infrastructure, expanding the consumer base while ensuring the volume production of lower- cost consumer goods. o Transportation is a key variable Primary Activities: Agriculture •Concern over food supply •Agriculture: the growing of crops and the tending of livestock, whether for the subsistence of the producers or for sale or exchange. o Has replaced hunting and gathering as economically the most significant of the primary activities. •Most widespread • Employment in agriculture is steadily declining in developing countries. •Subsistence, traditional, and advanced are terms employed to recognize both aspects. o One end is production solely for family sustenance, using rudimentary tools and native plants. o The other end, is the specialized, highly capitalized, near-industrialized agriculture for off-farm delivery that marks advances economies. o In the middle, is the traditional agriculture, where farm production is in part destined for home consumption and in part oriented toward off-farm sale either locally or in national and international markets. Subsistence Agriculture o Subsistence is an economic system that involves nearly total self-sufficiency on the part of its members. o Production for exchange is minimal and any exchange is non commercial. o Two types: §xtensive únvolves large areas of land and minimal labour input per hectare. úroduct per land unit and population densities are low. úomadic herding • The wandering but controlled movement of livestock solely dependent on natural forage, is the most extensive type of land use system. • Sheep, camels, and goats are most common. • Common characteristics are: hardiness, mobility, and an ability to subsist on spare forage. • Is declining úhifting cultivation • “swidden”- burned clearing • farmers hack down the natural vegetation, burn the cuttings, and then plant such crops as maize (corn), millet (a cereal grain), rice, manioc or cassava, yams, and sugarcane. • Crop yields become lower with each successive planting on the same plot. §ntensive únvolves the cultivation of small land holdings through the expenditure of great amounts of labour per acre. úields per unit area and population densities are both high. ú5% of the world’s people are engaged in intensive subsistence agriculture. úCharacterized by: large inputs of labour per unit of land, by small plots, by the intensive use of fertilizers, mostly animal manure, and by the promise of high yields in good years. úIn all parts of the developing world, urban-origin foodstuffs have reduced the incidence of adult and child malnutrition in cities rapidly expanding by their own birth rates and by the growing influx of displaced rural folk. Expanding Crop Production o Two paths to promoting increased food production are apparent: §xpand the land area under cultivation ú70% of earth’s land is agriculturally unsuitable (too cold, too dry, too steep, or inferile) ú30% of the land that can be produced on is already in use. §ncrease crop yields from existing farmlands o Intensification and the Green Revolution §wo interrelated approaches to those yield increases mark recent farming practices: Production inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and labour have ú been increased to expand yields on a relatively constant supply of cultivable land. úGreen Revolution: the shorthand reference to a complex of seed and management improvements adapted to the needs of intensive agriculture and designed to bring larger harvests from a given area of farmland. •Is commercially oriented and demands high inputs of costly hybrid seeds, mechanization, irrigation ,fertilizers, and pesticides. úOriented towards risk minimization. Commercial Agriculture o Production controls §griculture within modern, developed economies is characterized by specialization: úBy enterprise úBy area úBy country úBy off-farm sale úBy interdependence of producers and buyers §armers in a free market economy supposedly product the crops that their estimates of market price and production cost indicate will yield the greatest return. Contractual arrangements or vertical integration. § §gribusiness: the growing merging of older, farm-centred crop economy and new patterns of more integrated production and marketing systems. A Model of Agriculture Location §ohann Heinrich von Thunen (1783-1850) §bserved that lands of apparently identical physical properties were used for different agricultural purposes. §ifferent rings around the market úThe ring closest to the market specialized in perishable commodities that were both expensive to ship and in high demand. úRings of farmlands farther away from the city were used for less- perishable commodities with lower transport costs, reduced demand, and lower market prices. §hunen proposed a formal spatial model to analyze human activity patterns. §he greater the distance, the higher was the operating cost to the farmer, since transport charges had to be added to other expenses. §armland close to markets takes on high value, is used intensively for high-value crops and is subdivided into small units. úntensive commercial agriculture refers to the production of crops that give high yields and high market value per unit of land. Ex. Fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, all are highly perishable. ú úecause these items are perishable, their transport costs are high and are located close to markets. ún general, livestock-grain farms are close to the great coastal and industrial zone markets. • Ex. Corn Belt of USA and livestock region of Western Europe. §and far from markets is used extensively and in larger units. úarther from the market, on less-expensive land, there is less need to use the land intensively. úheaper land gives rise to larger farm units. úxtensive commercial agriculture is known by large wheat farms and livestock ranching. Special Crops §wo special cases are agriculture in Mediterranean climates and in plantation areas. §editerranean Agriculture as a specialized farming economy, is known for grapes, olives, oranges, figs, vegetables, and similar commodities. úost productive agriculture lands in the world. §lantation crops: the introduction of a foreign element- investment, management, and marketing- into an indigenous culture and economy, often employing an introduced alien labour force. ún estate whose resident workers produce on or two specialized crops. úx. African coffee, Asian sugar, tobacco, rubber. Custom and modities = plantation ú Agriculture in Planned Economies §lanned economies have a degree of centrally directed control of resources and of key sectors of the economy that permits the pursuit of governmentally determined objectives. §ontrol is extended to the agricultura
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