Climate Change 11-03-15 2:24 PM
Karst Topography refers to a large limestone region marked by sinkholes, caverns, and underground
• Agent that causes erosion and deposition to occur.
• Form in places that annual snowfall is greater than snowmelt.
• A glacier is a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or spreading outward on land
• Firn: non-melting accumulating snow, can flow/move from gravity.
oSnow in snow banks, granule ice
• In summer, snow line retreats
oFirn line: eqm point of accumulation and melting.
• Snow/ice picks up dirt and can erode
Retreating moraine- glaciers are shrinking
• Positive balance: accumulation balance.. for a glacier to grow it must be positive.
• Negative balance: ablation (melting) balance
• Upper glacier: “brittle”/fractures
• Lower glacier: “plastic”
• 10% of earth’s land is under ice.
• Permafrost: a permanently frozen layer of ground that can be as much as 1500 meters deep.
oCan be continuous or discontinuous depending on the surface and amount of water.
• Glacier trough: a deep u-shaped valley visible only after the glacier had receded.
• Tarns: small lakes in the hollowed out depressions of a cirque.
• Outwash plain: a gently sloping area in front of a melting glacier.
oGreat alluvial fans
oCover a wide area and provide new parent material for soil formation.
Waves, currents, and coastal landforms
• If land at the cost is well above seal level, the wave action causes cliffs to form.
• Beaches are formed by the deposition of sand grains contained in the water.
Long shore currents, move roughly parallel to the shore, transport the sand, forming beaches and
• Sandbars are formed from the backwash of waves that take away sand
oIf sandbars become extensive they can form lagoons or inlets.
• Coral reefs are made from coral organisms growing in shallow tropical water.
• Atolls are reefers formed in shallow water around volcanoes.
• In dry climates, wind is a powerful agent of erosion and deposition.
• Many sculptures in dry areas are made from mechanical weathering.
• “Dust Bowl” in 1930’s Oklahoma, Texas and Colorado.
• Barchan is one of the most distinctive sand desert dunes- crescent shaped.
• Loess is a wind-deposited material, silty in texture. Located in midlatitude westerly wind belts.
Long Term Climate Change
oTwo major climatic periods in the past 1000 years.
§Medieval warm period (800-1200 AD)
úemperatures were warmer than they are now
§“little ice age” (1300-1850 AD)
úrctic ice expanded, glaciers advances, drier areas of the earth were
desiccated, and crop failures and starvation were common.
oShape of earth’s orbit around the sun §aries from nearly circular to more elliptical over a period of about 100,000
§hen circular, the earth experience relatively cold temperatures
§hen elliptical, as it is now, the earth is closer to the sun for several months, is
exposed to more total solar radiation, and this is has higher temperatures.
o Tilt of earth’s axis relative to the orbital plane
§ilt varies from 21.5 degrees to 24.5 degrees every 41,000 years.
§mount of solar radiation striking polar regions changes as the angle of tilt
§ow tilt, more perpendicular, is accompanied by periods of cooler climate, which
are critical for forming ice sheets.
o Earth wobbles slightly as it rotates
§his changes the earth’s orientation to the sun
§he gyration of the rotation axis repeats every 23,000 years.
§hen tilt is greatest, the polar regions receive less solar radiation than they do
at other times and become colder.
Short Term Climatic Change
o Volcanic eruptions can alter climates for several years.
§he stuff that they spit out, can block some of the incoming solar radiation that
normally would reach the earth’s surface, producing a cooling effect.
ú1816 “year without a summer” in New England
• snow fell in June, caused by Indonesian volcano Tambora.
1883 Krakatoa, Indonesia volcano
ú1991 Mo•nt Pinatubo, Philippines
lowered average global temperatures by about 0.5 degrees.
o Alterations in patterns of oceanic circulation
úWarm surface waters from the western Pacific Ocean more eastward,
changing the climate along the western coasts of South and North
o Sunspot activity
§elatively cool regions on the surface of the sun, vary number and intensity over
periods of years.
úThey affect both the output of solar energy and concentrations of ozone
in the earth’s upper atmosphere.
The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Human beings contributing to climatic change through the greenhouse effect.
§ertain gases concentrate in the atmosphere, where they function as insulating
barrier, trapping infrared radiation that would otherwise be radiated back
into the upper atmosphere and reradiating in earthward.
§an increase temperatures (global warming)
o Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
§ade up of thousands of scientists from about 120 countries reported in May
2007 that they were very concerned about rising CO2 levels.
o CO2 is the primary greenhouse gas, whose amount has been increased by human
§evels are rising from increasing emissions of fossil fuels.
• Fewer trees to capture CO2 and produce oxygen.
• Burning wood sends CO2 back into atmosphere at an
§5% contribution to global warming.
o Other important greenhouse gases influenced by human activity are:
úFrom natural gas and coal mining, agriculture and livestock, swamps,
and landfills. §itrous oxides
úrom cars, industry, fertilizers
§hlorofluorocarbons, hydroflurocarbons, and perflurocarbons
o Temperatures have rose about 0.6 degrees
o Winter temperatures in the Arctic have risen 4 degrees, since 1950’s.
o Arctic is losing ice cap
o Glaciers are tinning and retreating on every continent
o Increase sea temperatures
o Changes in precipitation patterns Soils and Economic Geography 11-03-15 2:24 PM
Notes from Textbook:
•Soil erosion: the removal of soil particles, usually by wind or running water, is as natural a
process as soil formation, and it occurs even when land is totally covered by forests or grass.
The rate of soil formation equals or exceeds the rate of soil erosion.
•Topsoil eventually disappears from soil erosion.
•Farming skills create ways to preserve and even improve the soil resource.
•Desertification: the expansion or intersification of areas of degraded or destroyed soil and
vegetation cover; it usually occurs in arid and semiarid environments. Climate change is often
a contributing cause.
oAfrica is most at risk.
•Salinization: is the concentration of salts in the topsoil as a result of the evaporation of surface
water. It occurs in poorly drained soils in dry climates, where evaporation exceeds
precipitation. As water evaporates, some of the salts are left behind to form a white crust of
the surface of the soil.
Wetlands: vegetated land surfaces that are periodically or permanently covered by or saturated
with standing water.
oBest known: Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia and the bayous of Louisiana and Missisippi.
oTwo categories of wetlands:
úogs, marshes, swamps, floodplains adjacent to rivers.
úresh or saltwater
•Nutrients flowing into oceans from streams and rivers, so that
vegetation and a great variety of aquatic life can flourish.
•Depends on the esturine zone: the relatively narrow area of
wetlands along coastlines where salt water and fresh water
meet and mix.
•Perform many important roles:
oTrapping and filtering silt, pollutant, and nutrients that rivers bring downstream.
oBreeding zone for many species.
oAbsorb floodwaters and help stabilize shorelines by providing barriers to coastal
•Clean Water Act of 1972
oGave wetlands a measure of federal protection.
oProhibits the filling of wetlands without a permit issued by the USCOE.
Notes from Lecture:
Soil: a dynamic, natural, 3 dimensional body on the surface of the earth composed of mineral, organic
materials, and living forms. The properties of soils are due to the integrated effects of climate and living
matter acting upon parent material, as conditioned by relief(soil at top or bottom of slope) over periods of
Soil is defined as the naturally occurring, unconsolidated mineral or organic material at least 10 cm thick
that occurs at the earth’s surface and is capable of supporting plant growth.
Weathering The alteration of mineral and or organic material by chemical (decomposition) and physical
Materials weather because they are responding to changes in conditions ex. A rock is formed under high
temperatures, high pressure, low O2 and liquid water then if the rock is found on the surface it
experiences low temperatures, low pressure, high o2 and liquid water.
Weather is very important to soil formation for it creates parent material.
o Not chemically changing the rock, just breaking it up into smaller pieces.
o Creates silt size particles (50-20 microns in size)
Sand size particles, clay size particles
o Gives us even smaller particles
§lay size (2 microns)
o Primary à secondary minerals
o Oxides, carbonates, sulfates
o Clays- most important for soils.
§ery small in size (less than 2 um)
§hape- plate like- very large surface area
§ositive and negative charges on its surface
§hemical activity cation exchange capacity (CEC)
úigh values for CEC= high soil fertility.
§nions (negative charged ions)
§ations (positively charged ions)
úVery water soluble
úlays a•low the cations to be attracted to the clay
Root gets close to clay and releases H+ ions, and clays give off
other ions that the root slurps up.
Factors Controlling Soil Formation
o Temperature and precipitation
§ontrol the type of plants
o Scale macro (large area)
o Micro (small area)
•Organisms (plants and animals)
o Vegetation micro flora
o Soil micro fauna earthworms to bacteria
o Bedrock to regolith
o Transported materials
• o Controls processes and the amount of time it takes for a soil process to occur
o Site conditions
o Soil drainage
o Soil evolution
o Pedogeneis or soil evolution is the process by which soil is created. oTakes many many years!
§= soil properties
§l= regional climate
§= potential biota (organisims)
§= parent material
•The basic structure
•The amount of sand, silt and clay
clay- goes through siv- then in a water thing, stir it all up, you will figure out size particles in a
•how acid or alkaline is the soil
•low pH soils are organic soils
•you could determine if the dirt was developed in a human environment
Munsell Soil Colour Book
oThe removal of material from one area in soil to another area in the soil.
oPositive moisture balance and cool temperatures
oOrganic matter at surface that breaks down and produces organic acids that absorbs
certain ions (Iron and Aluminum)
oFe and Al are illuviated from the soil (taken out)
§hey are deposited in the B horizon
oEluviated A, Illuviated B
oPositive moisture balance- water moves through the system
oNo trees, some grasses
oEqm moisture balance
oWater isn’t moving actively downwards all the time
oPositive moisture balance
Water is present all the time
oPlant matter doesn’t decompose
oThis is a reducing environment
oDon’t see reds and oranges, you see greys and blue greens.
oDon’t find in Canada
oPositive moisture balance and hot temperatures o Organic litter on surface, this is quickly broken down by the critters that live on the
§uickly recycled at the surface
o Extracting Alumimum
o Weathered soils
o Everything that can weather, does and is removed.
o Deep soil
o A means to understanding
o Organizing a confusing world
o Finding relationships
•Units of Classifcation
§asic unit of soil
§mallest 3D unit that can be considered a soil
§oil would be homogeneous
§ layer of soil approx parallel to the soil surface with distinct characteristics
produced by soil-forming processes.
A Horizon, B Horizon, C Horizon, R Horizon (slightly weathered rock)
§oil = A,B,C horizon
§,B horizon = solum
úas been modified by processes
o Canadian soil classification system
§arger to smaller area
úrder (covers largest area)
úype (smallest surface expression)
§anadian soil Orders
•Brown earth, Bm horizon
•Prairie, grassland soil
•Greys and blue-green colour soils
•Washed of clay, Bt horizon
•Clay is depositied in B horizon (elluviated with clay)
High organic amounts
•Ae and Bf horizons movement of Fe and Al
•B horizon where Fe and Al is deposited
•Youthful soils, little soil development
•Little altered from the past
•High salt amounts
•Black soils, rich in swelling clays, high CEC
§reat Group, subgroups úrthic humic podzol
§oil Horizons- Bf
Soil Erosion (how soil is removed from the surface)
•The wearing away of the land surface by running water, wind or ice.
•Deflation= wind erosion of soil
•Soil erosion is mainly affected by water and to a lesser extent wind
•Water plays a very important role
o Infiltration capacity
§he maximum rate of movement of water cm/hr
§easure the amount of water that can move into the soil.
§igh: able to absorb lots of water in a small amount of time
§hen water hits the surface it could
úiffusion: go into the surface
•Moves in the soil by transmission (usually downwards)
úverland flow: move over the surface (initiates soil erosion)
§actors that affect infiltration
úature of surface
o Pore space
Holes between grains of soil
o Sand large size
o Clay small size
o Ability to transmit water
o Linked pores that move water to one pore space to the
•Vegetation and organisims
o High with many roots
o Earthworms many channels
úature of water input
o How much rainfall in an hour
o Number of hours of rain
•Time since last rain
o Winter frozen ground
o Summer dry soil
•Significance of soil erosion
o Surface soil removed (best for growing things)
o Loss of natural fertility
o Fines removed first highest fertility
Many farmers are cultivating subsoils
§arginal farmland increase
§ost of food production increase
§ater quality decrease
§eservoir capacity decrease
o Soil erosion and land use
§rops and agriculture practices
o Factors influencing soil erosion
§egetation (most important) §oil type (texture)
§lope size (length and inclination)
§ainfall (frequency and intensity)
Soil Water System
• Hygroscopic water: 1 molecule thick layer 31 to 10,000 atmosphere- vapour movement only
oTightly held by soil particle
oMeasured by atmospheres (higher the more tight)
• Capillary water- 31 to 1/3 atmosphere
oCan move by capillary particles
oCan move through the soil
• Field capacity- 1/3 atmosphere pressure (pore spaces are filled with water and are moving
through the soil)
oFine solid and high organic soils have higher field capacity
• Gravity water flows with gravitational gradient < 1/3 atmosphere pressure.
15 atmosphere: wilting point, plants begin to wilt.
Universal Soil Loss Equation
• A= R*K*S*C*P
• A=soil loss tons/hectare/year
• R= rainfall erosion index (frequency and intensity)
• K= soil erodibility
• S=slope (length and inclination)
• C=plant cover
• P=erosion control practice (practice in-place to reduce erosion) (contour plow?)
• Is the study of the location, distribution, and spatial organization of economic activities across
• The brand of geography concerned with the production and distribution of commodities.
Therefore, economic geo is concerned with ideas about the location of economic systems.
oAdam Smith (1723-1790)
§upply and demand
§ree enterprise capitalism
§rote the book “wealth of nations”
§nvisible hand of the market
oDavid Ricardo (1772-1823)
§hird child of 17 kids
§he ‘dismal science’
§atural wage set by costs of subsistence
§heory of comparative advantage.
úf it has an advantage, it should produce what it produces the best at the
Iron Law of Wages
§ Wages were determined by scarcity of workers and the costs of
subsistence. An increased demand for labour brings forth in the long
run, worker receive a natural wage set by the costs of subsistence.
úompassion wasted on the working man, is damaging
oKarl Marx (1818-1883)
§apitalism is doomed
§onflict (moral, economic, social)
§abour theory of value
§ommunists §Economic doctrine
úuying in order to sell again in order to make profit
úhe boss profit is surplus value
úrofits go back to owners of capital, not to labour
§Boss exploits workers
úourgeoisie- class exploits
úroletarian- class that works
§To en exploitation
Workers of the world unite
úYou have nothing to lose but your chains
úistory is made by people not by destiny or God
úaterialism is the economic basis of society
úow a society produces in order to survive.
§Mode of productions
úrimitive community- hunt and gather
• Type of agriculture
• People go in a cut down trees and burn them, the burnt ash
becomes fertilizer in following years.
• Land becomes less and less fertile over time
• These people move to new land, and become this process again
• This is common in tropical rainforest environments
• This can work, depending on the amount of people
§Means of production
úho owns them?
úivisions of labour
§Marxism assits us to ask tough questions about our society:
úriticism with a critical eye
§Das Kapital (Karl wrote this book)
úhe worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the
more his production increases in power and range. The worker
becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he
• The worker and machineary are the same thing, one can be
turned into another.
• The things you are producing become cheaper and cheaper and
you become cheaper and cheaper
úabour produces not only commodities; it produces itself and the
worker as a commodity- and does so in the proportion in which it
produces commodities generally.
•Developing an Economic Mindset
oEconomic geographers identified economic problems and analyzed them in their own
oThe way we think about and analyze economic problems also depends on our world
view o We can recognize three competing viewpoints: conservative, liberal, and radical.
§re convinces that a capitalist free enterprise economy allows individuals to
achieve maximum personal liberty and material well being.
§ost freedom to people
§arket mechanisms of demand and supply work to satisfy consumer
§he role of government in society should be limited to the maintenance of law
and order to that capitalism can operate freely
§ewer government regulations and programs would solve many national and
§hare with conservatives a faith in capitalism
§nlike conservatives, however, they place a great emphasis on individual
equality and social justice.
§he state must intervene on behalf of every citizen whenever market
mechanisms fail to meet basic human needs.
§estern powers must be prepared to assist the world’s poor.
§aintain that scholars must look at Marxist theory to interpret economic
§riticize conservatives and liberals because their analyses do no go to the root
problem (economic structure)
Argue that the dynamics of socioeconomic organization in capitalist societies
product particular kinds of class and institutional structure.
§lasses and institutions formed by the capitalist mode of product “explain” a
particular set of social problems that cannot be solved without changing the
form of socioeconomic organization.
o Chart- Alternative Viewpoints
•People are naturally unproductive and individualistic
•Very material, positive raise in income, negative unemployment
úole of state
•Only police power to maintain law and order to market can
Gradual change results from individuals interaction in the
•People are naturally unproductive but of goodwill
•Essentially material: positive raise in income; negative
úole of state
•Police power and offsetting inadequacies in the economy
whenever basic human needs are not achieved
•Rapid change through government actions
•Gov. programs for social change to occur fast
•People are natural productive and cooperative
•Non really necessary: social awards valuable
úole of state •Police and economic power used to maintain and enhance
•Revolutionary change through mass movement to transform
society’s structure and values.
•Application of Economic idea
o Von Thunen Location Theory
§on Thunen, 1826 Germany the Isolated State (wrote this book)
§e owned lots of land
§e was interested in why things are where they are in terms of agriculture
§here seemed to be a pattern with the types of crops grown in relationship to
where the cities were located.
o 4 assumptions
§ingle urban market, flat plain with an uniform environment, free exchange of
all goods and services (conservative mindset- profit maximization)
§tate’s economic system is freely competitive, max. Profits with supply and
§ll land is equal in terms of on site production costs and productivity per unit
§ne mode of transportation equal in all directions.
o Distance played very important variable
o The most important variable in this model that farmers consider is the cost of land
versus the cost of transporting products to markets because their goal is to make the
o The equation is: L= Y(P-C)-YDF
§= yield, per unit of land
§= market price of the crop per unit of yield
§= production cost of the crop per unit of yield
D= distance from the market
§F= transport cost per unit of yield and unit of distance
§ilk is the most costly to transport, therefore it has the steepest slope
sell for 8$, but takes 4$ to get there.
ú §ith this graph, you would chose to make milk, because you make the most
•Grouping Economics Activities
o Primary activities
o Secondary activities
o Tertiary activities
§etail and wholesale trade
§ersonal and professional services
o Quaternary activities
úmost people were in agriculture
úsecondary economic activities rose, industrial age, but since then it has
útertiary has increased, especially in post industrial
úquaternary has increased post industrial society.
§his tells us
úNot a lot of future jobs in primary economic activities, or secondary.
úOpportunities in tertiary and quaternary
úNorth American and japan are not engaged in agriculture
úIn Africa they are.
•Weber Location Theory o Alfred Weber 1868-1958
o Theory of the Location of Industries, 1929
o Industrial Factories
o Alfred Weber formulated a theory of industrial location in which an industry is located
where the transportation costs of raw materials and final product is a minimum.
o The theory has 5 assumptions.
§ingle isolated political state with a homogeneous culture- an isotropic plain
(flat uniform plain)
The products are sold at a single market
§he number and combination of natural resources/raw materials vary in their
§niform mode of transportation with cost increase directly with distance and
weight, natural resources and finished products have equal transportation
§he distribution of labour/wage rates is restricted to certain locations, but
supply at those sites is unlimited.
o In Weberain analysis, the optimal location for a factory is largely dependent on the
geographical availability of the raw material and on the weight loss characteristics of
the raw material.
§eight and distance gives the transportation value
o ISOTIM- line of transportation cost
o ISODAPANE- line of total transportation cost. Points of equal additional transport costs
around the minimum total transport cost point. (sum or calculating aggregate of all
úThe resource is available everywhere
úThe resource is located at a particular place
úEx. Gold mine
úWeight is lost in the manufacturing process
úEx. It takes 9 tons of sugar beets to product one ton of sugar
úThere is no weight lost in the conversion of the raw material into a
Ex. Water to soft drink or bottle water.
§wo resource sites and one market site
§actory must be located at market OR resource sites.
§1: 3 tons is required to produce 1 ton
§2: 2 tons is required to produce 1 ton
§he best place to locate the factory would be:
ú1: 100 x 2 + 60 x 1= 260 ton km
ú2: 100 x 3 + 80 x 1= 380 ton km
ú: 60 x 3 + 80 x 2 = 340 ton km
úe would locate at R1, were greatest weight loss occurs.
o Varignon Frame
§alculate where to locate something
o Web looking thing
§dd up the costs (dots)
Sum of all the isotims at one point will be the isodapane
§n unhappy condition of overload, debt, anxiety and waste resulting from the
doffed pursuit of more, the disease of over consumption.
•Definition: spatial analysis in relation to environment variation
•Demography: statistical study of population
•People that live on the earth – 6.9 billion people
o How much land would it take if each person gets 1 square metre
•Fertility: reproductive performance
•Mortality: number of deaths in population
•Migration: permanently changing residence from one geographic location to another
o FP= final population
o Sp= starting population
o B= births during period
o D= deaths during period
o I= in-migration during period
o O= out-migration during period •Population Growth
o 8000 BC = 5 million
o 1800 = 1 billion
o 1930= 2 billion
o 1999= 6 billion
o 2011= 7 billion
o time that adds a billion, is decreasing
o rate: frequency of occurrence
§ex. Divorce rate
o cohort: data to population group
§ex. 5 years old
o crude birth rate (CBR)
§40,000/ 2,000,000 = 20 per 1000
§40 is high (Afghanistan), Niger (51.6)
§8.8 is low (Singapore), Canada (10.3)
o total fertility rate (TFR): number of births per women
§15-44 years old
2.1 needed for replacement
§if replacement rate is reached but is kept on being replaced, will still grow in the
§This number is key to what the future population growth will be.
§Across the globe, fertility rates are declining
o crude death rate (CDR) (per 1000)
§20+ high- Angola (24), Afghanistan (18)
§<10 low – Canada (7.7), United Arab Emirates (2.1)
§Today CDRs are not related to level of economic development
o Infant Mortality Rate
§Deaths age 1 year or less / 1000 births
§Compare countries, regions, or societies
§Directly related to how much a society is willing to spend on health, and a health
§China’s one child policy 1978
úemale children aren’t as well cared for as male children
•Problem: understanding exponential growth
o Exponential growth occurs when the growth rate of a mathematical function is
proportional to the function’s current value.
§Ex. F(x)= 50x is not an exponential function
§ F(x)= x^3 or 2^x is an exponential function.
o The amount of time required to double the number of a growing phenomena. We
calculate it by:
• §=70/ %growth per unit of time.
•Soap and sanitation improve life expectancy
o food production can be increased only arithmetically,
o whereas population has the potential to increase geometrically.
§landscape can only support low populations
o agriculture revolution
o farming §op. Reached limit
o industrial revolution
•demographic transition model
o looks at fertility rates (birth and death) over time.
o European model
o The change from high fertility and high mortality to low fertility and high mortality
Why birth control failed in manupur
o Punjab India
o Is an age structure diagram, that shows the distribution of various age groups (cohorts)
o Dependency ratio: the number of dependents young and old that each 100 persons must
o Number of people who can be supported in a given area within natural resource limits,
and without degrading the natural, social, cultural and economic environment for
present and future generations.
o The physical disintegration of earth materials at or near the surface
o Larger rocks are broken into smaller pieces.
o Don’t alter the chemical composition of the rock.
o Three most important mechanical weathering
úater soaks into a rock freezes, ice crystals grow and exert pressure on
úhen process repeats, the rock begins to disintegrate.
úroundwater is drawn to the surface by capillary action
Evaporation leaves behind salt crystals that form, expand, and
úoots and plants find their way into rocks and break and disintegrate
o The minerals composing rocks separate into component parts by chemical reaction
rather than fragmentation.
o Each depend on the availability of water, chemical weathering occurs less in dry and
cold areas than in moist and warm ones.
o Chemical reactions are accelerated in the presence of moisture and heat, so less
chemical weathering occurs in cold, dry areas than in warm, moist ones.
o Three most important chemical weathering processes:
When oxygen combines with mineral components, such as iron, to form
úome rock areas in contact with oxygen begin to decompose.
úhemical change that occurs, when water comes into contact with
certain rock minerals such as aluminosilicates.
§arbonation úhen carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere dissolves in water, a
weak carbonic acid forms.
oDown slope of movement of material due to gravity is called mass movement.
Erosion Agents and Deposition
oWind, water and glaciers, carve already existing landforms into new shapes.
§he most important erosional agent.
§epends on several factors
Amount of precipitation
úLength and steepness of the slope
úind of rock and vegetative cover
§mall particles, such as slay and silt, are suspended in water and constitute
together with a material dissolved in the water or dragged along the bottom,
the load of a stream.
§ilt and sand accumulate at the intersections, creating deltas.
úsually in a balance between erosion and uplift of land.
úost important is to know if the recent landscape was arid or humid.
útreams in humid areas
• Erosion process is greatly accelerated
• Ex. Delaware, Connecticut, and Tennessee rivers.
• Rounds landforms
• Carve valleys that are wider than those in mountainous areas.
• Floodplains form
• Channels left behind as new ones are cut become oxbow lakes.
o Crescent shaped and occupies the abandoned channel
of a stream meander.
Streams in arid areas
Lack of vegetation in arid regions greatly increase the erosion
force of running water
• Temporary lakes: playas
• Alluvium (sand and mud) builds up in the lakes and at lower
elevations, and alluvial fans are formed along hillsides.
• Streams in arid areas are temporary
• Carve deep, straight-sided arroyos.
únderground water accumulates, a zone of saturation called an aquifer
• Upper zone= water table.
úaves- limestone Economic Geography 11-03-15 2:24 PM
Notes from Textbook:
Economic Geography: the study of how people earn their living, how livelihood systems vary by area, and
how economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked.
The Classification of Economic Activity and Economies
Categories of Activity
View economic activity as ranged along a continuum of both increasing complexity of
product or service and increasing distance from the natural environment.
§Those that harvest or extract something from the earth.
§Beginning of the production cycle
§Humans are in closest contact with the resources and potentialities of the
§Ex. Hunting, gathering, grazing, agriculture, fishing, forestry and mining.
§Those that add value to materials by changing their form or combining them
into more useful, and therefore more valuable, commodities.
§Ex. Copper smelting, steele making, metalworking, automobile production, the
textile and chemical industries. Also included are the energy and
§Those business and labour specializations that provide services to the primary
and secondary sectors and goods and services to the general community and
to the individual.
§Ex. Professional, clerical, and personal services.
§Constitute the vital link between producer and consumer
§Wholesale and retail trade activities.
§The processing and dissemination of information and administration and
control of their own or other enterprises.
§White collar professionals working in education, government, management,
information processing, and research.
High-level decision making roles in all types of large organizations.
Types of Economic Systems
oThree major types of systems:
úoods and services are created for the use of the producers and their
úittle exchange of goods and only limited need for markets.
úave become dominant in nearly all parts of the world
úroducers or their agents in theory freely market their goods and
services, the laws of supply and demand determine price and
úarket competition is the primary force shaping production decisions
ússociated with the communist-controlled societies that have now
collapsed in nearly every country where they were formerly created
úroducers or their agents disposed of goods and services through
governmental agencies that controlled both price and supply. úx. Cuba and North Korea
Stages of Development
o Key indicator was the degree of an economy’s industrialization and progression beyond
a largely subsistence livelihood system.
o “Big Push”
concludes that underdeveloped economies can break out of poverty by
coordinated investment in both basic industries and infrastructure,
expanding the consumer base while ensuring the volume production of lower-
cost consumer goods.
o Transportation is a key variable
Primary Activities: Agriculture
•Concern over food supply
•Agriculture: the growing of crops and the tending of livestock, whether for the subsistence of
the producers or for sale or exchange.
o Has replaced hunting and gathering as economically the most significant of the primary
Employment in agriculture is steadily declining in developing countries.
•Subsistence, traditional, and advanced are terms employed to recognize both aspects.
o One end is production solely for family sustenance, using rudimentary tools and native
o The other end, is the specialized, highly capitalized, near-industrialized agriculture for
off-farm delivery that marks advances economies.
o In the middle, is the traditional agriculture, where farm production is in part destined
for home consumption and in part oriented toward off-farm sale either locally or in
national and international markets.
o Subsistence is an economic system that involves nearly total self-sufficiency on the part
of its members.
o Production for exchange is minimal and any exchange is non commercial.
o Two types:
únvolves large areas of land and minimal labour input per hectare.
úroduct per land unit and population densities are low.
• The wandering but controlled movement of livestock solely
dependent on natural forage, is the most extensive type of
land use system.
• Sheep, camels, and goats are most common.
• Common characteristics are: hardiness, mobility, and an ability
to subsist on spare forage.
• Is declining
• “swidden”- burned clearing
• farmers hack down the natural vegetation, burn the cuttings,
and then plant such crops as maize (corn), millet (a cereal
grain), rice, manioc or cassava, yams, and sugarcane.
• Crop yields become lower with each successive planting on the
únvolves the cultivation of small land holdings through the expenditure
of great amounts of labour per acre.
úields per unit area and population densities are both high.
ú5% of the world’s people are engaged in intensive subsistence
agriculture. úCharacterized by: large inputs of labour per unit of land, by small plots,
by the intensive use of fertilizers, mostly animal manure, and by the
promise of high yields in good years.
úIn all parts of the developing world, urban-origin foodstuffs have
reduced the incidence of adult and child malnutrition in cities rapidly
expanding by their own birth rates and by the growing influx of
displaced rural folk.
Expanding Crop Production
o Two paths to promoting increased food production are apparent:
§xpand the land area under cultivation
ú70% of earth’s land is agriculturally unsuitable (too cold, too dry, too
steep, or inferile)
ú30% of the land that can be produced on is already in use.
§ncrease crop yields from existing farmlands
o Intensification and the Green Revolution
§wo interrelated approaches to those yield increases mark recent farming
Production inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and labour have
been increased to expand yields on a relatively constant supply of
úGreen Revolution: the shorthand reference to a complex of seed and
management improvements adapted to the needs of intensive
agriculture and designed to bring larger harvests from a given area of
•Is commercially oriented and demands high inputs of costly
hybrid seeds, mechanization, irrigation ,fertilizers, and
úOriented towards risk minimization.
o Production controls
§griculture within modern, developed economies is characterized by
úBy off-farm sale
úBy interdependence of producers and buyers
§armers in a free market economy supposedly product the crops that their
estimates of market price and production cost indicate will yield the greatest
Contractual arrangements or vertical integration.
§gribusiness: the growing merging of older, farm-centred crop economy and new
patterns of more integrated production and marketing systems.
A Model of Agriculture Location
§ohann Heinrich von Thunen (1783-1850)
§bserved that lands of apparently identical physical properties were used for
different agricultural purposes.
§ifferent rings around the market
úThe ring closest to the market specialized in perishable commodities
that were both expensive to ship and in high demand.
úRings of farmlands farther away from the city were used for less-
perishable commodities with lower transport costs, reduced demand,
and lower market prices.
§hunen proposed a formal spatial model to analyze human activity patterns. §he greater the distance, the higher was the operating cost to the farmer, since
transport charges had to be added to other expenses.
§armland close to markets takes on high value, is used intensively for high-value
crops and is subdivided into small units.
úntensive commercial agriculture refers to the production of crops that
give high yields and high market value per unit of land.
Ex. Fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, all are highly perishable.
úecause these items are perishable, their transport costs are high and
are located close to markets.
ún general, livestock-grain farms are close to the great coastal and
industrial zone markets.
• Ex. Corn Belt of USA and livestock region of Western Europe.
§and far from markets is used extensively and in larger units.
úarther from the market, on less-expensive land, there is less need to
use the land intensively.
úheaper land gives rise to larger farm units.
úxtensive commercial agriculture is known by large wheat farms and
§wo special cases are agriculture in Mediterranean climates and in plantation
§editerranean Agriculture as a specialized farming economy, is known for
grapes, olives, oranges, figs, vegetables, and similar commodities.
úost productive agriculture lands in the world.
§lantation crops: the introduction of a foreign element- investment,
management, and marketing- into an indigenous culture and economy, often
employing an introduced alien labour force.
ún estate whose resident workers produce on or two specialized crops.
úx. African coffee, Asian sugar, tobacco, rubber.
Custom and modities = plantation
Agriculture in Planned Economies
§lanned economies have a degree of centrally directed control of resources and
of key sectors of the economy that permits the pursuit of governmentally
§ontrol is extended to the agricultura