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Geography Notes Midterm 1.pdf

29 Pages

Course Code
Geography 1100
D.Kim Holland

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CHAPTER 1 RCHAN747 What is geography? The study of ohumans and environments in interaction oSpatial variation oHow and why things differ from place to place on the earth oHow observable spatial patterns evolved through time Geographers oCollect data obtained from satellites. oSpace and location matters oWant to know answers to: §here is it? §hy is it there? §hy is it important? oLocation- precise position oHuman-environment relationships oRegion identification Epidemiologists (people who study the spread of diseases) oCollect data on the occurrence of diseases. oDr. J Snow §the most terrible outbreak of cholera which ever occurred in this kingdom, is probably that which took place in Broad Street, Golden Square, and the adjoining streets, a few week ago.” (Sept 1854) §within two hundred and fifty yards of the spot where the two streets meet, there were upwards of five hundred fatal attacks of cholera in ten days.” §eople left because the death count was rising very high. §he city was deserted by more than three-quarters of the population. §hat is the problem? úr. Snow thought that it could be the water. úe wanted to check the water. úe asked the people where they got their water from and he found out that the people who were dying were getting their water from the same pump. úe mapped it out. On the Beach oNeed for water oBeaches as highways oLaunching point for discovery oNearness to water requirements Hazards oHumanity coming to terms with environment oWhy do we live where we do even if we “know” there are hazards? Evolution of the Discipline Background oGeo, “the earth” and graphein, “to write” • oWriting focused both on the physical structure and on the nature and activities of the people who inhabited the various lands of the known world. oStrabo o Herodotus oGreek and Romans geographers measured the earth, in a global grid of parallels and meridians (latitudes and longitudes). oAncient Chinese were as involved in geography explanatory viewpoint as were westerners, though there was no exchange between them. oMuslim scholars took the knowledge that was lost in the middle ages, and described and analyzed their known world in its physical, cultural, and regional variation. th oModern geography beginning in the 17 century. oEarly 1800’s; organized interlinking research oNational societies 19 C interest in exploration. Groups were formed to tell stories about their adventures. People started writing papers about what they found. §oyal Geographic Society: The American Geographical Society 1852 §ational Geographic Society 1881 §nstitute of British Geographers 1933 §anadian Association of Geographers 1951 Subfields of Geography oBy the end of the 19 century, geography had become a distinctive and respected discipline in universities throughout Europe. oDevelopment of a whole series of increasingly specialized disciplinary subdivisions: political geography, urban geography, and economic geography. oAll subdivisions are characterized by three dominating interests: §patial variation úamines relationships between human societies and the natural environments that they occupy and modify. §ocus on the systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one area of the earth with other areas. §egional analysis úuman-environmental relationships and spatial systems in specific locational settings. úhis areal orientation pursued by some geographers is called regional geography. oSystematic geographers: choose to identify particular classes of things, rather than segments of the earth’s surface, for specialized study. §hysical geography the natural environmental side of the human-environment structure. úandforms and their distribution útmospheric conditions úlimatic patters §uman geography the emphasis is on people úhere they are úhat they are like úow they interact over space úhat kinds of landscapes of human use they erect on the natural landscapes they occupy. Why Geography Matters oThree reasons why people study geo. §) the only discipline concerned with understanding why and how both physical and cultural phenomena differs from place to place on the surface of the earth. §) a grasp of the broad concerns and topics of geo is vital to an understanding of the national and international problems that dominate daily news reports. §) a great diversity of job opportunities await those who pursue college training in the discipline. Some Core Geographic Concepts Recognizing spatial patterns is the essential starting point for understanding how people live on and shape the earth’s surface. Spatial, carries the idea of the way things are distributed, the way movements occur, and the way processes operate over the whole or part of the surface of the earth. Location, Direction and Distance Location: oAbsolute and relative location oAbsolute location: is the identification of place by a precise and accepted system of coordinates, sometimes called a mathematical location. §x. Global grid of parallels and meridians. §eference to its degrees, minuets, and seconds of latitude and longitude. §x. Which hemisphere, north or south of the equator. §x. Survey systems oRelative location: the position of a place or thing in relation to that of other places or things. It expresses interconnection and interdependence and may carry social and economic implications. §x. Neighborhood character, assessed valuations of vacant land, where the school library is relative to the buildings around it (not by its address). Ex. Location tells us that people, things, and places exist in a § world of physical and cultural characteristics that differ from place to place. oSite: an absolute location concept, refers to the physical and cultural characteristics and attributes of the place itself. Tells us about the specific features of that place. Ex. London is two hours away from the hwy. § oSituation: refers to the external relations of the place and particular reference to items of significance to the place in question. §x. What other places are to that place. The site of London Ontario was at the forks of the Tan River. Ex. Ottawa was picked for it being French and English picked § by Queen Victoria. Direction: oAbsolute and relative direction oAbsolute: is based on the cardinal points of north, south, east and west. These appear in all cultures. oRelative: or relational, going “out west” or “back east”. These directional references are culturally based on locational variable. §x. Two blocks east of the library. Distance: oAbsolute and relative distance. oAbsolute: the spatial separation between two points on the earth’s surface measured by an accepted standard unit, such as miles or km. oRelative: transforms those linear measurements into other units more meaningful for the space relationship §x. Money (10 dollars to bus to this point) Ex. Time (1 hour to Toronto) § §x. Fear (travelling somewhere you don’t want to go could take longer because you a scared to go there) Size and Scale Scale: tells us the relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area on the surface of the earth. Types of Scales: oMacroscopic Process: covers large areas of the earth. §sostatic rebound; energy movement (removing a weight from the earth: ex. Taking a glacier off the land, the land will lift up and respond to that removal.) in general we don’t have much control over macroscopic § processes by humans. Humans are too powerless to affect something this big. oMicroscopic Process: covers small areas. §x. Puddle in your back yard. §echnology allows humans to control microscopic processes. oMesoscopic process: in between scale. §ewly scale features that in the past were macroscopic but we have some control over some things. Generalization: concepts, relationships, may not have meaning when scale changes. Have to be selective and simplify the real world. Physical and Cultural Attributes All places have individual physical and cultural attributes that distinguish them from other places and give them character, potential and meaning. Natural Landscape: climate, soil, water supplies, mineral resources, terrain feature etc. These provide the setting within which human action occurs. Cultural Landscape: the visible imprint of human activity. Exists at different scales and different levels of visibility. Attributes of Place Are Always Changing Interrelations between Places Spatial Interaction: places are interrelated with other places in structured and comprehensible ways. This adds accessibility and connectivity to the ideas of location and distance. Tobler’s First Law of Geography: in a spatial sense, everything is related to everything else but relationships are stronger when things are near on another. Interaction between places diminished in intensity and frequency as distance increases. Interactions Amoung Places oDistance decay oGravity model oNewtons law of gravity §= (G M1M2)/(D^2) oSpatial interaction §=(K Pi Pj) / (D^2 ij) §he number of phone calls btwn cities is an interaction btwn those two cities. §he interaction btwn two places (I and J) would be related to how big I and J are, divided by the distance between I and J. §his model is telling us that interaction is greater between two places that are closer together. § Accessibility: how easy or difficult is it to overcome to barrier of the time and space separation of places? Accessibility suggests the idea of connectivity: a concept implying all the tangible and intangible ways in which places are connected. (Ex. Telephone lines, street and road systems, pipelines, and sewers) Spatial Diffusion: process of dispersion of an idea or a thing from a center of origin to more distant points. The rate is affected by distance. Rates are affected by factors such as population densities, means of communication, advantages of the innovation, and importance or prestige of the originating note. Globalization: the increasing interconnection of more and more peoples and parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural. Political, economic, and environmental processes becomes international in scale and effect. Place Similarity and Regions Distinctive characteristics suggest that: oNo two places on the surface of the earth can be exactly the same oThe natural and cultural characteristic of places show patterns of similarity in some areas. Spatial regularities exist and permit us to recognize and define regions: earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external differences from surrounding territories. Geographers unify regions by elements or similarities to determine the boundaries of a region. Spatial Distributions §egions are devised §egions are spatial summaries that are designed to bring order to the infinite diversity of the earth’s surface. §egions are based on spatial distributions (the spatial arrangement of environmental, human, or organizational features selected for study.) oDensity §umber of objects per unit of area oDispersion §ow near or far objects are from each other oPattern §escriptive term that we attach to an organization of objects, theme                       Types of Regions oCan be either formal, functional, or perceptual oAre conceptual constructs oAreas of spatial similarity oBring order from diversity oHave location, boundaries. oFormal region: an area of essential uniformity regarding a single physical or cultural feature or a limited combination of physical or cultural features. §Ex. Home state, a formal political region) (Ex. “Columbia Plateau” or “The Corn Belt” or “The Rocky Mountains”) § oFunctional( or nodal) region: may be visualized as a spatial system. Its parts are interdependent and throughout its extent the functional region operates as a dynamic, organizational unit. Has unity in the manner of its operational connectivity. §ex. Trade areas of towns, national “spheres of influence). §Ex. Transportation routes) §ex. Scales of retail- btw Wal-Mart and all its stores around the world) § oPerceptual (or vernacular or popular) regions: less rigorously structured than the formal and functional regions. They are regions that exist and have reality in the perceptions of their inhabitants and the general society. They reflect feelings and images rather than objective data. Geography’s Themes and Standards Location: the meaning of relative and absolute position on the earth’s surface Place: the distinctive and distinguishing physical and human characteristics of locales Relationships with places: the development and consequences of human- environmental interactions movement: patterns and change in human spatial interaction on the earth Regions: how they form and change. th September 28 , 2010 Environment determines what you are. These people believed this: Ellen Semple, Ellsworth Huntington, and Griffith Taylor Possibilism- aspects of human culture are determined by us, not the environment. People determine and choose. Human beings are in control of their future. This idea was promoted by Paul Vidal de la Blache. Probabilisim- stresses that human beings, technology, and the environment are all together. The Four Tradition of Geography Earth Science Tradition •First part of textbook •Study of the physical earth •Lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and the energy and material that flow between them •Physical geography as represented by geomorphology, meteorology, and climatology, hydrology, and oceanography. Culture-Environment Tradition •Influence of environment on humans •Humans as agent to environmental destruction/change (human impact) Location Tradition •Why things are the way they are •Western European position, there is a separation of the happening of things such as aspects as distance, form, direction, and position. •Immanuel Kant-a philosopher, the notion of space. •Ancient records of Greece- sailing distances coastline and landmark maps to locate position in the world and move through the world. Area Analysis Tradition •Strabo-Greek geographer. Described all the known world not only where people and things where but the nature of places and people, what they did and how they lived •Regional Geography both formal and functional. (Geography of Canada or Geography of Ontario) Chapter 2- The Scientific Method and the Nature of Geograph c Data The Scientific Method •Objective method of investigation •Search for ‘Laws’ •Approach to problem solving • Rational method of thinking, exploring •Prediction-gives us somewhat control over the future •First credited to Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Advantages of the Scientific Method •Logical, objective •Can re reproduced •Mathematical precision Two Methods of the Scientific Method: Inductive 1.Perceptual experiences 2.Unordered facts 3.Definition classification measurement 4.Ordered facts 5.Analysis generalization (make statements about the things we are interested in looking at) 6.Laws and Theories (to explain how the world operates or the problem that we are looking at) 7.Explanation (explain how the world works) *The key step in the inductive method is the definition classification measurement because without it there is nothing else. Deductive 1.Perceptual experiences 2.Image of the real world (how the universe operates. We gain these ideas form our experiences) 3.A priori model (model from an experience) 4.Hypothesis (a testable statement about reality) 5.Design an experiment 6.Data (taken from the results of the experiment) (we record this data) 7.Verification (does the data support our hypothesis?) 8.Laws and Theories (if the verification process says yes, it does support the hypothesis, then the hypothesis could be generated into a law or theory. If the verification doesn’t support hypothesis, you will have to go back and do another experience or alter your hypothesis) Models Representation of the object under study. 3 basic types, 2 different flavors. In order of increasing abstraction. Building Models 1.Real World 2.Iconic Model- represents the world. Changing the scale. taking the big world and shrinking it to something more manageable. Ex. Wave tank modeling wave erosion 3.Analogue Model- take the properties that we are observing and we change them into something else that we are measuring or looking at. One property is represented by another. Ex. Contour lines for elevation. 4.Symbolic model- uses symbol to represent the real world. Ex. Usually in mathematical form. Ex. Gravity model Static and Dynamic Model Static- those concerned with one period of time. Time doesn’t play a role. Dynamic- those which predict future patterns and those which change over time. Most problems fall in dynamic. Data Collection Experimental oWe have Control on variables, collect data, watch one variable. Yields good data in that we limit the possible things that we are interested in. Many of the physical sciences rely on this principal. Normative oDon’t have control. oObservation and measurement without controls. oObserve events with a view of establishing constant relationships. Historical oDon’t have control. oNo control but involves sequences over time. oRelies heavily on accurate observations in time. Problems of Sampling How do I do it? How many samples do I need? Points Lines Areas If our feature is a point.. we should sample by areas (grids) on a map. IF our feature is a line.. we should sample by other lines on a map or areas. If our feature was an area.. we should sample by points, lines, or areas to sample it. The shape of the curve: helpful. It is saying that as the number of samples increases, our confidence that those samples represent the whole population rises very fast. The flat line, reaches a slow slope. At a certain point, before it starts to flatten out, the + or – of a sample doesn’t affect the confidence. Maps As the Tools of Geography Maps oMaps are geographer’s primary tools of spatial analysis oThey show spatial distributions, patterns, and relations of interest oOnly through a map can spatial distributions and interactions of whatever nature be reduced to an observable scale isolated for individual study, and combined or recombined to reveal relationships not directly measurable in the landscape itself. oCartography is the art of making a graph. Locating Points on a Sphere The Geographic Grid oWe use the geographic grid, a set of imaginary lines that intersect at right angles to form a system of reference for locating points on the surface of the earth. oNorth and South Poles are key references §nd points of the axis about which the earth spins oThe Equator and prime meridian are also key references §he equator encircles the globe halfway between the poles. §he prime meridian is a starting point for east-west measurement, cartographers in most countries use it as an imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England. Selected in 1884. oLatitude is the angular distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees ranging from 0-90. oLongitude is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian ranging from 0-180 degrees. §ime depends on longitude oEarth makes a 360 degree rotation every 24 hours. oThe Earth is divided into 24 time zones, each 15 degree interval. These time zones were developed when train travel became § popular. oInternational Date Line is where each new day begins. o Land Survey Systems Three other ways of land-identification: oLong-lot §sed by French settlers in North America. oMetes and Bounds §nglish settlers in the colonies used this. §his system utilized physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define and describe in sequence the boundaries of a parcel of land. §rominent trees, unusual rocks, streams that might dry up or change course, and human-made features such as roads and fences, the metes and bounds system led to boundary uncertainty and dispute. §Led to road patterns, where routes are often controlled by the contours of the land rather than the regularity of a geometric survey. oTownship and Range §The Land Ordinance of 1785 established it. §It was based on survey lines oriented in the cardinal directions: base lines that run east-west and meridians that run north-south. §A township consisted of a square 6 miles on a side, further divided into 36 sections 1 mile on every side. §This system was adopted by the United States §This system is similar to the Canada Land Survey System. Map Projections Map: oLatin mappa- to cover oScale: direction: symbols oTool to understanding oTo make observable oLimits of mapping omaps get things done oneed title, legend, scale, direction indication (where N,S,E,W) obegin with air photos-provides the base for our map Globe properties are: oAll lines of longitude (meridians) are of equal length; each is one- half the length of the equator. oAll meridians meet at the North and South Poles and are true north-south lines oAll lines of latitude (parallels) are parallel to the equator and to each other oParallels decrease in length with distance from the equator oMeridians and parallels intersect at right angles oThe scale on the surface of the globe is everywhere the same in all directions. Only on a globe do are all these characteristics represented.. they cannot all be fully true on a map because when you lay a globe flat it is somewhat distorted. Map Projection designates the way the curved surface of the globe is represented on a flat map. All maps have distortions. Area, shape, distance, direction all get distorted. We can project by: a Cylinder, plane, or cone.
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