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quiz 3.docx

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Course Code
Geography 1100

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Article 1: 7 Radical Energy Solutions 1. Solar Gasoline • Sun creates more energy in an hour than civilization uses in a year • If scientists could convert that surplus to liquid, our dependency on fossil fuels could end • Solar fuels have four effects in one (clean fuel supply, great energy security, carbon dioxide reduction, less climate change) 2. Clean(er) Coal • Coal is the cheapest resource in the US • Able to suck CO f2om coal before it hits atmosphere, saps 30% of energy from coal • Doubles the cost of efficiency • Salt use: pulls in twice as much CO 2s other absorbers • Undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid: releases heat and is recycled to help drive carbon out of the liquid to be disposed • Reduce parasitic energy to 22% • Carbon has to be stored somewhere, inject it underground (Sequestration) 3. Magnetic Air Conditioners • Air conditioners burn through electricity: 1/3 of home usage • Magnets could dramatically cut the load • Magnets eliminate the compressors used • Magnetocaloric Effect: magnetic materials heat up to some extent when exposed to a magnetic field and cool down when the field is removed • Heat is stored as vibrations, when metal can not move they heat up more • In magnetic coolers: motor spins the wheel which does most of the work, motors are more efficient than compressors • Uses only water to transfer heat: environmentally friendly • Texas: unusual cooling technologies o Cooler that does away with refrigerants: relies on thermoelectric materials that are cold on one side and hot on the other o Consumes less fuel and reduces emissions 4. Quantum Photovoltaics • Quantum dots boost theoretical maximum above 60% (up from 31) • Many of sun’s photons have too much energy, when they strike, releases hot electrons which rapidly lose their energy and return to initial state • If hot electrons are grabbed before cooled, maximum efficiency could double • Slow down how fast electrons cool, more time to capture
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