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Geography 1400 EXAM material.doc

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Geography 1400F/G
Godwin Arku

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GEOGRAPHYEXAMREVIEW Lecture6 Whatispoliticalgeography? - Political geography studies the spatial dimension of human conflict and cooperation on this planet. Scale of study: Traditionally at the state level. Meaning Political Geography studies the actions of governments and institutions rather than those of actual people Interestedinhowhumans: -group themselves into nations -how those nations can form the foundation of states -how states claim space as their territory -how states compete for territory and negotiate boundaries between each other Nation: Applicable to all cultural groups Cultural trait can be: - a common mother tongue (e.g. Welsh or Basque) - a common ethnic ancestry (e.g. Ojibway) - a common religion (e.g. Christianity) State: A set of institutions It has the following features: - It covers a distinct area (‘territory’) - The limits of the territory are defined by borders to neighbouring states - The territory is ruled by one government that exercise power over the territory and those that live within it Nation-State: A clearly-defined large group of people who self-identify as a group and occupy a spatially-defined territory with necessary infrastructure, social and political institutions Note: there are few ‘true’ nation-states. Example of ‘true’ nation-states are Japan, Iceland, Slovenia, and Portugal StatelessNations: Nations that do not currently have a state of their own Examples include: the Basque living in Northern Spain and Southern France want to form their own state Multi-NationalStates: Where a state’s population is formed by two or more distinct nations Examples include: Belgium – shared between French-speaking Walloons in the south, Dutch-speaking Flemings in the north, and a German-speaking minority in the east Exploration: Most empires began as a result of exploratory activity Colonialism: Economic, social, and political activity in explored areas that became colonies were determined by and for the exploring power. In recent years the number of states in the world has increased, from 70 in 1938 to more that 190 in 2009. - Most of these states have achieved independence from a colonial power - Many of them reflect national groupings, but some occupy areas around which Europeans drew boundaries for their own reasons EffectsofColonialization Net losses to the national economies of the colonial powers, benefiting the stock exchange and a few individuals rather than state treasuries. Offered a way to reduce population pressure State creation and expansion: Ratzel: - Seven laws concerning the spatial growth of states - Generalizations based on observations of a supposed ideal world - Notion of the state as a living organism Jones: - Chain of events beginning with political idea and concluding with creation of political area - Between idea and area are: decision, movement, field Deutsch: - Process of state creation involves up to eight stages - Emphasizes evolution and focuses primarily on human actions Geopolitics is about the ways in which states, and institutions apply geographical knowledge and principles to enhance their power vis-a-vis their competitors HeartlandTheory: Theory of world power based on the assumption that the land-based state controlling the Eurasian heartland held the key to world domination. a. Who rules Eastern Europe commands the heartland b. Who rules the heartland commands the World Island c. Who rules the World Island commands the World. Geopolitik: Study of states as organisms that choose to expand in territory in order to fulfill their destinies as nation-states. i.e. ‘survival of the fittest’ (Darwinist idea) RimlandTheory: Theory of world power based on the assumption that the state controlling the area surrounding Eurasian heartland held the key to world domination. Centrifugal: Tear a state apart - When it exceeds centripetal forces, a state is unstable e.g.: internal divisions in language or religion; weak institutions, separatist movements, etc. Centripetal: Bind a state together - When it exceeds centrifugal forces, a state is stable e.g.: extensive transportation and communication infra.; religion, history, language, strong ethnic identity, central institutions etc. Boundaries - Mark the limits of a state’s sovereignty - 'Lines' drawn where states meet or where states’ territorial waters end - Artificial in the sense that what is meaningful in one context may be meaningless in another Boundaries can be physical or cultural in character - Physical or Natural Boundaries: A river, A mountain range - Cultural or Artificial Boundaries: Religious boundaries, Language boundaries - Geometric boundary: Straight lines or arcs that have been drawn on a map and then transferred to the real landscape TypesofGeometricBoundary: 1. Antecedent boundaries: - Established before significant settlement began 2. Subsequent boundaries - Defined after an area has been settled and the basic form of the human landscape has been established. 3. Relics boundaries A boundary that doesn't exist anymore but still has an effect on the present-day area Example: Berlin wall or the boundary between east and west Germany. Typesofboundarydisputes: 1. Positional disputes. States disagreement over: the interpretation of existing documents that define a boundary 2. Territorial disputes. Conflicts between states or regions over the ownership of a given area 3. Resource disputes. Conflicts over the use of resources created or complicated by a boundary. 4. Functional disputes. Conflicts over the national policies applied at a border. GroupingsofStates: Essentially limited to establishing and maintaining trade blocs (NAFTA, ASEAN) - Several other groups now established - Most influential is United Nations FormsofGovernment Democracy: rule by the people Monarchy: rule by a single person Oligarchy: rule by a few, usually those in possession of wealth Dictatorship: oppressive and arbitrary form of rule established and maintained by force and intimidation Anarchism: rejects the concept of state and associated division of society into ‘rulers’ and ‘ruled’ SocialistLess-developedStates: - They aim to remove any and all features of capitalism. - They have the power, in principle, to make substantial changes to society. - Neither of these characteristics has been met with popular approval. - Socialism has a strong, anti-colonial, nationalistic component. SubstateGovernments Unitary: The most centralized form of government; local governments are used by the central state to organize the political hinterland. Federal: The least centralized. One purpose is to prevent one level of government from dictating to another. Compound Unitary: Midway between the federal and unitary types, these systems devolve substantial powers to subnational governments, but less power than in the federal case ExercisingStatePower Capitalist countries: state power is exercised through various institutions and organizations State apparatus includes: 1. Political and legal systems 2. Military or police forces to enforce the state’s power 3. Mechanisms such as a central bank to regulate economic affairs Critical issue: Need for international cooperation in solving global environmental problems Electionmatters In analysis of elections, geography is an important factor: in the boundaries of voting districts, voting behaviour, government activity, and larger world issues LegitimacyofElections: - Free versus compromised elections - Recent elections in 154 countries identified 39 as compromised, mostly in Africa and Asia Creating Electoral Bias: Gerrymandering: any spatial reorganization designed to favour a particular party Malapportionment: a form of gerrymandering involving the creation of electoral districts of varying population sizes so that one party will benefit Lecture7 Globalization - The increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change - The process of reducing barriers between countries and encouraging closer economic, social, and political interaction - Leads to increasing integration and interconnectivity among those spaces Economic - Emergence of global communication system that link all regions on the planet instantaneously - Transnational corporate strategies that have created global corporations - New forms of production of goods and services - Emergence of new centers of production - Emergence of new forms of technology Cultural – global information, global education and media, global lifestyle, entertainment, fashion and design Political – global political institutions, and power blocs, democracy as the dominant system of governance Environmental –global ecosystem, global pollution, pandemics, global conservation movements and politics ForcesshapingGlobalization - Technology - Capitalism "New"aboutglobaleconomy Global scales of activities - Greater speed - Global integration (interconnectedness) - Single globalized market (‘Global village’) - Vast consumer products - Larger participants (people & countries) - A new global division of labour Thehyperglobalistposition:globalera - Declining relevance and authority of nation-states - Economies are becoming “denationalized.” - Brought about largely through the economic logic of a global market "Today’s global economy is genuinely borderless. Information, capital, and innovation flow all over the world at top speed, enabled by technology " Theskepticalposition:increasedregionalism - The “golden age” of globalization occurred at the end of the 19th century. - Disagree whether old cleavages are becoming increasingly irrelevant. - The third world is not being drawn into a global economy Main‘actors’ 1. Nation States 2. Central Banks 3. International organizations 4. International governmental organizations 5. Multinational corporations - These ‘actors’ form a network at different organizational and geographical scales. DevelopmentalFootprint - Local cultures tend to “domesticate”, “indigenize”, “tame”, imported consumer culture by giving it a local flavour - Many cultures promote a consumer nationalism that encourages local over “foreign” goods - Corporations choose distinct localities to succeed - Communities compete by touting local geographic benefits or differences in their campaigns GlobalizationandGeography Compression-- Time-space distanciation describes the process whereby remote (long distance) interaction has become an increasingly significant feature of human life Networks-- A set of interconnected nodes, without a center. Example of a network: - “commodity chains” a complex network of people, labour, and production processes starting with the extraction of raw materials from the earth itself and ending with your purchase of the final production Placelessness-- Places have meaning to one group, although at the same time meaningless to other groups. (“deterritorialization”) - Rationalization - takes a task and breaks it down into smaller tasks. “McDonaldization” Glocalization-- A product or service that is developed and distributed globally. At the same time fashioned to accommodate the user or consumer in a local market. Pro-globalizationstance - Many business-oriented benefits - Competition allows flow of capital to poorest areas - Increases wages - Consequences of change are uncertain Criticsofglobalization - More beneficial to developed worlds - Selective free trade - Contributing to ever-widening gap between rich and poor Middleground - Strong, efficient governments - Strengthened and reformed international institutions - Globalized networks of environmental, labor and human rights groups Lecture8 CategoriesofEconomicActivity 1. Primary - economic activities that are concern directly with natural resources of any kind Eg: - Agriculture - Fishing 2. Secondary - economic activities that process, transform, fabricate or assemble the raw materials derived from primary activities Eg: - manufacturing - processing 3. Tertiary - activities where people offer their knowledge and time to improve productivity Eg: - retailing - financial services 4. Quaternary - economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information as well as distribution Eg: - information - research 5. Quinary Executive decision makers - involves high level decision making in large organizations Agriculture- The science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of soil and the rearing of livestock. Key fact: The most widespread and space consuming activity globally Why are specific agricultural activities located where they are? Physical, Cultural, Political Domestication Agriculture originated in the domestication of plants and then animals. Domestic plants and animals differ from their non-domesticated counterparts. Began roughly 12,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley. Some researchers suggest that domestication was something that humans resorted to only when they encountered difficulties with food supply. Climate change or population pressure (or a combination) might have prompted a search for new supplies. Fiveprincipaltechnologicaladvanceshavetransformed/aretransformingagriculturallandscapes aroundtheworld: - A second agricultural revolution associated with the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century. - The development of nitrogen fertilizers in the early twentieth century. - The 'green revolution' that began in the mid-twentieth century. -
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