1. Geography is the description of the world and writing about the world.
2. Human geography is the study of humans and their activities on the surface
of the earth.
3. As human geographers, we are interested in landscape both for what it is and
for what it means to live in it. A regional study is the study of environmental
effects of possible future projects in a region. Spatial analysis is basically
looking at the data and relationship between features.
4. It is the writing about the human world to increase our understanding of it.
5. People are dynamic, information processors and active agents that shape the
environment. Place consists of physical site and sense of place. Physical site
is materials located in space and sense of place is immaterial things
attributed to physical sites. Landscape is representation or view of
1. Inductive reasoning is “down to top” which is specific to general. Steps are;
observation, patterns observed, explanation. Deductive reasoning is “top to
down” which is general to specific. Steps are; there should be a general
principle, research carried out to see if it works on specific circumstances,
experiments to validate, law or theory established.
2. Researchers, such as interview, collect primary data sources. Somebody
else, such as archives, collects secondary data sources.
3. Need to establish facts (geographic literacy), need to understand and explain
facts (geographic knowledge).
4. Space is an area that is unoccupied. Absolute is objective and heart of
mapmaking, chorology and spatial analysis. Relative space is socially
produced and subject to change.
5. Location refers to a particular position in space, usually a position on the
earth’s surface. Absolute location is latitude/longitude. Relative location is
location of one place relative to the other, spatial interconnection. Site vs.
Situation is an example of Niagara Falls.
6. Place refers not only to a location but also to the values we associate with
that location. Sense of place refers to the attachments that we have to
locations with personal significance. Sacred space is a landscape usually for
religious reasons. Placelessness is the place, which lacks local variety and
character. Topophilia is the “love of place”.
7. Distance is the amount of space between two things. Absolute distance is
the exact measurement of space between two things (km). Relative distance
is approximate measurement of space between two things. Distance decay
is the decline in an activity with increasing distance from point of origin.
Critical distance is the distance beyond which individuals may not be
willing to travel due to cost, effort etc. 8. Scale is the size of the area studied but also the time period covered and the
number of people investigated.
9. Diffusion is the spread of any phenomenon over space and its growth
10.Perception is the process by which humans acquire information about
physical and social environments.
11.Absolute direction is direction based on cardinal points such as north, south,
east, and west. Relative direction is basically left, right, up, and down.
12.Region is an area with one or more traits in common. Formal region is a
region identified as such because of the presence of some particular
characteristics. Functional/nodal region is a region that comprises a series
of linked locations.
1. Cartographic map is two-dimensional spatial representation of the
2. General maps consist of topographic maps, political maps; Topographic
maps are maps that represent the earth’s surface in both horizontal and
vertical dimension. Political maps are maps that show the borders defining
countries and territories.
3. Thematic map is a type of map or chart especially designed to show a
particular theme connected with a specific geographic area. Choropleth are
maps of coloring geographic regions based on values. Proportional symbol
map is dots and graphs based on values. Dot map is a map of density based
4. Mental maps are maps, which represent perceptions and knowledge a
person has of an area.
5. Cartogram is a map in which the sizes of polygons are rescaled according to
6. Problems are; different projections, simplification, falsification,
disinformation and scale.
7. Map scale is defined as the ratio of a distance on the map to the
corresponding distance on the ground. Representative fraction is 1:50,000.
Verbal scale is words instead of numbers such as “ 1:50,000 can be
expressed as one centimeter to point five meters”
8. GIS is geographic information system, a system for storing and manipulating
geographical information on computer. Concepts are raster (grid) and
vector (or geometrical shapes).
9. Geocoding is finding the geographic location based on other geographic data
ex: postal codes, street addresses. Digitizing drawing in the spatial
information about a feature.
10.They are used in private sector and public sector. Such applications are;
gps, weather, climate trends. 11.Qualitative methods; passive observation, participation, and active
intervention. Quantitative methods; sampling, models, and statistical
1. Every human activity has an impact, and environment impacts human
activity. However, humans can be blind to their impact.
2. Everything in nature is related to everything else. Ecosystem is a biological
community of interacting organisms and their environment.
3. Humans are active and dominant agents of environmental change. Any
human change to an ecosystem is usually a simplification. Ex: farming,
buildings of dams, building cities.
4. Countries in the more-developed world generally use more energy per capita
than do countries in the less-developed world.
5. Stock resources are all minerals and lands are essentially fixed and take
very long time to form.
6. Renewable resources are sun, wind, biomass, and geothermal energy.
Environmental reasons: impacts of burning fossil fuels, consequence of
global warming. Economic reasons: coal, oil, and natural gas will become
more expensive as supplies become more scarcer. Political reasons: voters
are aware of environmental issues, national economies should be self-
sufficient, need to diversify to reduce dependence on particular suppliers.
7. Relationship between the environment and the economy. Environmental
problems are increasingly affecting relationships between countries.
Behavior of individuals as group members (ecocentric vs. anthropocentric).
Small, often insignificant changes to environment can cause major
impacts if repeated enough
Technological changes related to demands for energy changes
Increasing human popul