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Geography 1400G First Midterm Material.docx

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Geography 1400F/G
Godwin Arku

1. Geography is the description of the world and writing about the world. 2. Human geography is the study of humans and their activities on the surface of the earth. 3. As human geographers, we are interested in landscape both for what it is and for what it means to live in it. A regional study is the study of environmental effects of possible future projects in a region. Spatial analysis is basically looking at the data and relationship between features. 4. It is the writing about the human world to increase our understanding of it. 5. People are dynamic, information processors and active agents that shape the environment. Place consists of physical site and sense of place. Physical site is materials located in space and sense of place is immaterial things attributed to physical sites. Landscape is representation or view of environment. 1. Inductive reasoning is “down to top” which is specific to general. Steps are; observation, patterns observed, explanation. Deductive reasoning is “top to down” which is general to specific. Steps are; there should be a general principle, research carried out to see if it works on specific circumstances, experiments to validate, law or theory established. 2. Researchers, such as interview, collect primary data sources. Somebody else, such as archives, collects secondary data sources. 3. Need to establish facts (geographic literacy), need to understand and explain facts (geographic knowledge). 4. Space is an area that is unoccupied. Absolute is objective and heart of mapmaking, chorology and spatial analysis. Relative space is socially produced and subject to change. 5. Location refers to a particular position in space, usually a position on the earth’s surface. Absolute location is latitude/longitude. Relative location is location of one place relative to the other, spatial interconnection. Site vs. Situation is an example of Niagara Falls. 6. Place refers not only to a location but also to the values we associate with that location. Sense of place refers to the attachments that we have to locations with personal significance. Sacred space is a landscape usually for religious reasons. Placelessness is the place, which lacks local variety and character. Topophilia is the “love of place”. 7. Distance is the amount of space between two things. Absolute distance is the exact measurement of space between two things (km). Relative distance is approximate measurement of space between two things. Distance decay is the decline in an activity with increasing distance from point of origin. Critical distance is the distance beyond which individuals may not be willing to travel due to cost, effort etc. 8. Scale is the size of the area studied but also the time period covered and the number of people investigated. 9. Diffusion is the spread of any phenomenon over space and its growth through time. 10.Perception is the process by which humans acquire information about physical and social environments. 11.Absolute direction is direction based on cardinal points such as north, south, east, and west. Relative direction is basically left, right, up, and down. 12.Region is an area with one or more traits in common. Formal region is a region identified as such because of the presence of some particular characteristics. Functional/nodal region is a region that comprises a series of linked locations. 1. Cartographic map is two-dimensional spatial representation of the environment. 2. General maps consist of topographic maps, political maps; Topographic maps are maps that represent the earth’s surface in both horizontal and vertical dimension. Political maps are maps that show the borders defining countries and territories. 3. Thematic map is a type of map or chart especially designed to show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area. Choropleth are maps of coloring geographic regions based on values. Proportional symbol map is dots and graphs based on values. Dot map is a map of density based on values. 4. Mental maps are maps, which represent perceptions and knowledge a person has of an area. 5. Cartogram is a map in which the sizes of polygons are rescaled according to their population. 6. Problems are; different projections, simplification, falsification, disinformation and scale. 7. Map scale is defined as the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground. Representative fraction is 1:50,000. Verbal scale is words instead of numbers such as “ 1:50,000 can be expressed as one centimeter to point five meters” 8. GIS is geographic information system, a system for storing and manipulating geographical information on computer. Concepts are raster (grid) and vector (or geometrical shapes). 9. Geocoding is finding the geographic location based on other geographic data ex: postal codes, street addresses. Digitizing drawing in the spatial information about a feature. 10.They are used in private sector and public sector. Such applications are; gps, weather, climate trends. 11.Qualitative methods; passive observation, participation, and active intervention. Quantitative methods; sampling, models, and statistical testing. 1. Every human activity has an impact, and environment impacts human activity. However, humans can be blind to their impact. 2. Everything in nature is related to everything else. Ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their environment. 3. Humans are active and dominant agents of environmental change. Any human change to an ecosystem is usually a simplification. Ex: farming, buildings of dams, building cities. 4. Countries in the more-developed world generally use more energy per capita than do countries in the less-developed world. 5. Stock resources are all minerals and lands are essentially fixed and take very long time to form. 6. Renewable resources are sun, wind, biomass, and geothermal energy. Environmental reasons: impacts of burning fossil fuels, consequence of global warming. Economic reasons: coal, oil, and natural gas will become more expensive as supplies become more scarcer. Political reasons: voters are aware of environmental issues, national economies should be self- sufficient, need to diversify to reduce dependence on particular suppliers. 7. Relationship between the environment and the economy. Environmental problems are increasingly affecting relationships between countries. Behavior of individuals as group members (ecocentric vs. anthropocentric). 8.  Small, often insignificant changes to environment can cause major impacts if repeated enough  Technological changes related to demands for energy changes environment  Lifestyle  Increasing human popul
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