Geography 1400F/G- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 53 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
School
Western University
Department
Geography
Course
Geography 1400F/G
Professor
Western
Geography 1400F/G
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Intro & Chapter 1
What Is Geography?
-Geo means “the world”
-Graphei means “to write”
-“description of the world”
-Three themes central to any study of the humans and world
1. Relations between humans and the land
2. Regionalization
3. Spatial Analysis
-Key geographic concept: everywhere is different
-Basic concerns:
-Spatial patterns – description (what is where)
-Spatial processes – explanation (why there)
-Spatial meaning – interpretation (so what)
Human Geography
-Human geography studies the distribution of humans and their activities and the processes that
generate these distributions
-Gritzner: “what is there? why there? and why care?”
-Goal: writing about the human world to increase our understanding
-Practical and relevant study that teaches us about the world we live in and how we live in it
-Geographic facts represent and affect human life
-One strength of human geography is that it considers more than just one variable
-i.e. when studying population distribution we need to know about climate and the human perception
of those climates
-Central subject matter is human behaviour as it affects earths surface
-Human geography is not restricted to one defined subject
Humans and Land
-The human world is the ever-changing product of human beings as individuals and group members
(communities, governments)
-Human geographers focus on the evolution of the human world with reference to people, cultures, and
physical environments - over a certain period of time
-Human world = a landscape
-Exists as a result of human modification to physical geography
-Significant symbolic meaning (church)
-Geographers study landscape for both what it is and what is means to live in it
-Ecological analysis; a view which relates human and physical variables and identifies links
Regional Studies
-Divide large areas into smaller areas that exhibit a degree of unity
-Referred to as regions - regions share similarities
-The world is divided by regions because it is so large
-Human geography considers regions at a wide range of scales—from local to global.
-Our ability to regionalize tells us that human landscapes make sense
-Groups of people occupying a specific space over a period of time create regions
-Most modern study of regions;
-Social organization
-The effects or creating regions based on social and economic life
-Interactions between regions
-Regional boundaries as barriers
Spatial Analysis
-Understanding the human world requires that we explain location (why things are there)
-Spatial analysis approach to tackle this question through:
-Theory construction
-Models
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-Hypothesis testing
-Using quantitative methods
-Primary goal: explain locational regularities
-Secondary goal: identifying alternative locational patterns that might be more efficient
-All things are related
3 Main Concepts
People
-Dynamic — create problems and solutions
-Information processors — humans change from time to time
-Decision makers — make choices which force us to interact with the world
-Preference makers
-Adapters
-Creative/destructive force
-Part of the environment
Places - A place has meaning
-Physical site or location - an object located in space
-Includes the values that we associate with that location
-Have identities (e.g. home, neighbourhood, country)
-How we live where we live
-Sense of place created through
-Personal experience
-Secondary sources
-Characteristics of the site
Why Places Matter
1. Setting of our daily lives
2. Carry meaning and influence our lives
3. Allow us to express ourselves
4. Form group and personal identities
5. Express political, economic or religious views
Landscape: Our view of the surrounding environment
-Scape: view of
-Land: ‘environment’
-Human landscape: arrangement of human-made artifacts and activities
-Buildings
-Crops
-Infrastructure
-Everyone sees the world differently
-Many ways of ‘scaping’ a ‘land’
-Nature
-Habitat
-Problem
-Wealth/resources
-History
Lecture 2a & Chapter 2
Geographers Research
- Two basic endeavours:
1. Establish facts (geographic literacy)
2. Understand and explain the facts (geographic knowledge)
Core Geographic Concepts
Space
-Absolute (objective): heart of mapmaking and spatial analysis
-Relative (perceptual): socially-produced and subject to change
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Document Summary

Three themes central to any study of the humans and world: relations between humans and the land, regionalization, spatial analysis. Spatial patterns description (what is where) Human geography studies the distribution of humans and their activities and the processes that generate these distributions. Gritzner: what is there? why there? and why care? . Goal: writing about the human world to increase our understanding. Practical and relevant study that teaches us about the world we live in and how we live in it. Geographic facts represent and affect human life. One strength of human geography is that it considers more than just one variable i. e. when studying population distribution we need to know about climate and the human perception of those climates. Central subject matter is human behaviour as it affects earths surface. Human geography is not restricted to one de ned subject. The human world is the ever-changing product of human beings as individuals and group members (communities, governments)