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Geography 1400F/G Study Guide - Final Guide: Infant Mortality, Millennium Development Goals, Industrial Revolution

Course Code
GEOG 1400F/G
Godwin Arku
Study Guide

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Final Examination Notes
Geo 1400
1. Multiple Choice (40 questions, 1 mark each)
2. Short Answer (5 questions, 4 marks each)
3. Short Answer part 2 (10 question, choose 5, 6 marks each)
Chapters: 8, 10, 11, 13, 14
Lectures: 6-11
Lecture 6 & Chapter 8 Politics and Space
Political Geography
Political Geography the study of the spatial dimension of human conflict and
cooperation on this planet
At the state level
Studies the actions of governments and institutions rather than those of
actual people
Political Geographers are interested in how humans:
Group themselves into nations
How those nations can form the foundation of states
How states claim space as their territory
How states compete for territory and negotiate boundaries between each
A group of people sharing a common culture/trait/identity and an
attachment to some territory
o Traits may include: language, religion, history, ethnic ancestry
An area with defined and internationally acknowledged boundaries; a
political unit
o Covers a distinct space, has boundaries, ruled by one
government that can exercise control over the territory and
those who live within it
o There can be no state without a defined territory where its
laws are enforced
o There can be no state without a set of laws that are in force
across the country
o There can be no state without a population that enforces and
follows the laws
Stateless Nation:

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Nations that do not currently have a state of their own (ex/ Kurds, Basque)
A clearly defined large group of people who self identify as a group (nation)
and who occupy a spatially defined territory with necessary infrastructure
and social and political institutions (state).
o Hard to find since most states are not composed of just one
national group
Multi-National States:
A state who’s population is formed by two or more distinct nations
(ex/Canada, Great Britain)
The belief that a nation and a state should be congruent
Assumes that the nation state is the natural political unit
5 theories of why national identity emerged:
1. Nation states emerged in Europe in response to the rise of
nationalist political philosophies during the eighteenth century
2. Humans want to be close to people of similar cultural background
3. The creation of nation-states was a necessary and logical
component of the transition from feudalism to capitalism
4. Nationalism is a logical accompaniment of economic growth based
on expanding technologies
5. The principle of one state/culture arises from the collapse of local
communities and the need for effective communication within a
larger group
Exploration and Colonialism
Most empires began as a result of exploratory activity
Exploration expands the knowledge that a given state has about the world

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Economic, social, and political activity in explored areas that became colonies
that were determined by and for the exploring power.
Reasons were “god, glory, greed” but also included the response of Europe to
demands of the economic growth of the 15th century
Other reasons were: ambition, strategic territory, and national prestige
Most compelling reason was economic: colonial areas provided the raw
materials needed for domestic industries and additional markets for
industrial products
Decolonization is the process of a colony becoming a state of their own
o Independence achieved mostly peaceful, but some have been through
Effects of Colonialism:
o many colonies have resulted in net losses to the national economy of
the colonial powers
o Colonies were used to reduce population pressure
o Many believe this system of imperialism has had extremely negative
consequences on the weaker territory (natives got mass murdered?)
o Dependency theory contends that African and Asian countries became
poor as a result of their colonization, with these poorer countries
depending on their dominating countries for survival
Conceptual State Creation
Ratzel created seven laws concerning the spatial growth of states:
1. The size of a state increases as its culture develops
2. The growth of a state is subsequent to other manifestations of the
growth of a people
3. States grow by annexing smaller members, which increases human-
land relationships
4. State boundaries are peripheral organs that take part in all
transformations of the organism of the state
5. As a state grows, it strives to occupy some politically valuable
6. The initial stimulus for state growth is external
7. States’ tendency to grow continually increases in intensity
o Generalizations based on observations of a supposed ideal world
o Notion of the state as a living organism
Jones believed a chain of events beginning with political idea and concluding
of political area was the way a state was created
o Between the idea and area: decision, movement, field
o Example: Idea = Zionism, decision = Balfour Declaration, movement =
immigration of Jews, field = settlement and government activity,
political area = Israel
Deutsch believed it took place in eight stages, and emphasized evolution and
focuses primarily on human actions:
1. Transition from subsistence to exchange economy
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