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Geography 1400 Final Exam Notes

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Western University
Geography 1400F/G
Godwin Arku

1 Final Examination Notes Geo 1400 Format: 1. Multiple Choice (40 questions, 1 mark each) 2. Short Answer (5 questions, 4 marks each) 3. Short Answer part 2 (10 question, choose 5, 6 marks each) Content:  Chapters: 8, 10, 11, 13, 14  Lectures: 6-11 Lecture 6 & Chapter 8 – Politics and Space Political Geography Political Geography – the study of the spatial dimension of human conflict and cooperation on this planet  At the state level  Studies the actions of governments and institutions rather than those of actual people Political Geographers are interested in how humans:  Group themselves into nations  How those nations can form the foundation of states  How states claim space as their territory  How states compete for territory and negotiate boundaries between each other Nation:  A group of people sharing a common culture/trait/identity and an attachment to some territory o Traits may include: language, religion, history, ethnic ancestry State:  An area with defined and internationally acknowledged boundaries; a political unit o Covers a distinct space, has boundaries, ruled by one government that can exercise control over the territory and those who live within it o There can be no state without a defined territory where its laws are enforced o There can be no state without a set of laws that are in force across the country o There can be no state without a population that enforces and follows the laws Stateless Nation: 2  Nations that do not currently have a state of their own (ex/ Kurds, Basque) Nation-State:  A clearly defined large group of people who self identify as a group (nation) and who occupy a spatially defined territory with necessary infrastructure and social and political institutions (state). o Hard to find since most states are not composed of just one national group Multi-National States:  A state who’s population is formed by two or more distinct nations (ex/Canada, Great Britain) Nationalism:  The belief that a nation and a state should be congruent  Assumes that the nation state is the natural political unit  5 theories of why national identity emerged: 1. Nation states emerged in Europe in response to the rise of nationalist political philosophies during the eighteenth century 2. Humans want to be close to people of similar cultural background 3. The creation of nation-states was a necessary and logical component of the transition from feudalism to capitalism 4. Nationalism is a logical accompaniment of economic growth based on expanding technologies 5. The principle of one state/culture arises from the collapse of local communities and the need for effective communication within a larger group Exploration and Colonialism Exploration  Most empires began as a result of exploratory activity  Exploration expands the knowledge that a given state has about the world 3 Colonialism  Economic, social, and political activity in explored areas that became colonies that were determined by and for the exploring power.  Reasons were “god, glory, greed” but also included the response of Europe to th demands of the economic growth of the 15 century  Other reasons were: ambition, strategic territory, and national prestige  Most compelling reason was economic: colonial areas provided the raw materials needed for domestic industries and additional markets for industrial products  Decolonization is the process of a colony becoming a state of their own o Independence achieved mostly peaceful, but some have been through violence  Effects of Colonialism: o many colonies have resulted in net losses to the national economy of the colonial powers o Colonies were used to reduce population pressure o Many believe this system of imperialism has had extremely negative consequences on the weaker territory (natives got mass murdered?) o Dependency theory contends that African and Asian countries became poor as a result of their colonization, with these poorer countries depending on their dominating countries for survival Conceptual State Creation  Ratzel created seven laws concerning the spatial growth of states: 1. The size of a state increases as its culture develops 2. The growth of a state is subsequent to other manifestations of the growth of a people 3. States grow by annexing smaller members, which increases human- land relationships 4. State boundaries are peripheral organs that take part in all transformations of the organism of the state 5. As a state grows, it strives to occupy some politically valuable locations 6. The initial stimulus for state growth is external 7. States’ tendency to grow continually increases in intensity o Generalizations based on observations of a supposed ideal world o Notion of the state as a living organism  Jones believed a chain of events beginning with political idea and concluding of political area was the way a state was created o Between the idea and area: decision, movement, field o Example: Idea = Zionism, decision = Balfour Declaration, movement = immigration of Jews, field = settlement and government activity, political area = Israel  Deutsch believed it took place in eight stages, and emphasized evolution and focuses primarily on human actions: 1. Transition from subsistence to exchange economy 4 2. Increased mobility leading to formation of core areas 3. Development of urban centers 4. Growth of a network of communications 5. Spatial concentration of capital 6. Increasing group identity 7. Rise of national identity 8. Creation of a state Geopolitics  Geopolitics is the study of the importance of space in understanding international relations o Geopolitics is about the ways in which states, and institutions apply geographical knowledge and principles to enhance their power vis-a- vis their competitors  Mackinder’s Heartland Theory is a geopolitical theory of world power based on the assumption that the land-based state controlling the Eurasian heartland held the key to world domination o a. He who rules E. Europe commands the Heartland o b. He who rules the Heartland commands the World Island o c. He who rules the world Island commands world  Geopolitik is the study of states as organisms that choose to expand territory in order to fulfill their destinies as nation-states (survival of the fittest)  Rimland Theory is the theory of world power based on the assumption that the state controlling the area surrounding Eurasian heartland held the key to world domination o Credited to Spykman Forces influencing instability of states  Centrifugal Forces are forces that tear a state apart o Ex/ internal divisions in language or religion, separatist movements  Centripetal Forces are forces that tend to bind a state together o Ex/ communal language or religion, strong ethnic identity, central institutions  When Centripetal exceeds Centrifugal, the state is stable, and unstable if the opposite were true Boundaries  A boundary is: o Used to mark the limits of a state’s sovereignty o 'Lines' drawn where states meet or where states’ territorial waters end o Artificial in the sense that what is meaningful in one context may be meaningless in another  International boundaries are important for two reasons: 1. They separate states from each other to avoid conflict over the extent of territorial space 2. They establish how far the territorial authority of a state extends 5  Types of boundaries: o Natural: Rivers, mountain ranges, any natural forming structure that could act as a separation o Cultural/Artificial: determined by language boundaries, or religious boundaries o Geometric: Straight lines or arcs that have been drawn on a map and then transferred to the real landscape  Three Types of Geometric Boundaries: 1. Antecedent: existed before the current cultural landscape was established by the current population 2. Subsequent: Those that were drawn after the current cultural landscape was established 3. Relics: Those that are no longer functioning as such but are visible on the cultural landscape  Types of Boundary Disputes: o Positional: disagreement over the interpretation of documents that define a boundary or the way a boundary was delimited o Territorial: disputes over the ownership of a region o Resource: territorial disputes over the resources in an area o Functional: States disagree over policies to be applied along a boundary Grouping of States  Some states are choosing to unite, even giving up aspects of their sovereignty  Best example is European integration that occurred post WWII in which many groups were formed, which led to the European Union forming  Other examples include the UN, NAFTA and trade blocs Forms of Government  Democracy: rule by the people  Monarchy: rule by a single person  Oligarchy: rule by a few, usually the wealthy  Dictatorship: oppressive and arbitrary form of rule established and maintained by force and intimidation  Anarchism: rejects the concept of state and associated division of society into ‘rulers’ and ‘ruled’ Socialist Less Developed Issues  Socialism is an imprecise term, but we can identify two general characteristics of socialist regimes: 1. They aim to remove any and all features of capitalism. 2. They have the power, in principle, to make substantial changes to society.  Neither of these characteristics has been met with popular approval.  Socialism has a strong, anti-colonial, nationalistic component. 6 Sub-state government  There are three levels of centralization: 1. Unitary: The most centralized form of government; local governments are used by the central state to organize the political hinterland. 2. Federal: The least centralized. One purpose is to prevent one level of government from dictating to another. 3. Compound Unitary: Midway between the federal and unitary types, these systems devolve substantial powers to subnational governments, but less power than in the federal case (Type 1 and Type 2). Exercising State Power  Capitalist countries: state power is exercised through various institutions and organizations. State apparatus includes: o Political and legal systems o Military or police forces to enforce the state’s power o Mechanisms such as a central bank to regulate economic affairs  Critical issue: o Need for international cooperation in solving global environmental problems Elections: Geography Matters  In the boundaries of voting districts, voting behaviour, government activity, and larger world issues  Legitimacy of Elections: o Free versus compromised elections o Recent elections in 154 countries identified 39 as compromised, mostly in Africa and Asia  Creating Electoral Bias: o Gerrymandering: any spatial reorganization designed to favour a particular party o Malapportionment: a form of gerrymandering involving the creation of electoral districts of varying population sizes so that one party will benefit Lecture 7: Globalization  Definitions: o The increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change o The process of reducing barriers between countries and encouraging closer economic, social, and political interaction o An accelerating set of processes involving flows that encompass ever- greater numbers of the world spaces and that lead to increasing integration and interconnectivity among those spaces 7 Key Components of Globalization  Economical Aspect: o Emergence of global communication system that link all regions on the planet instantaneously o Transnational corporate strategies that have created global corporations o New forms of production of goods and services o Emergence of new centers of production o Emergence of global financial systems o Emergence of new forms of technology o Market economies that replaced state controlled economies o A plethora of planetary goods and services that have arisen to fulfill consumer demand o Global agreement that promote free trade  Cultural Aspect: o Global information, global education and media, global lifestyle, entertainment, fashion and design  Political Aspect: o Global political institutions, and power blocs, democracy as the dominant system of governance  Environmental Aspect: o Global ecosystem, global pollution, pandemics, global conservation movements and politics Key forces shaping Globalization  Two major forces shaping globalization: 1. Global Capitalism: embrace of a free market system and policies allow for easier integration 2. Technologic Advancement: increased connectedness have reduced the time and space associated with global business Is globalization new?  Precursors: o European journey of world discovery during the Dark ages – leading to global interdependence o Creation of colonial empires – creating global trade connection and diffusion of European culture o Mass production during the Industrial Revolution – created global search for raw materials  New Aspects: o Global scales of activities o Greater speed o Global integration (interconnectedness) o Single globalized market (‘Global village’) o Vast consumer products 8 o Larger participants (people & countries) o A new global division of labour Main views on globalization  Hyperglobalist Position: o The world is borderless o Nation states are no longer significant actors o Consumer tastes and acultures are homogenized o Distance no longer matters – End of Geography  Skeptical Position: o Newness of global economy is exaggerated o World economy was more open in the past 50 years than today Key actors of global processes 1. TNCs 2.The state 3. Labour 4. Consumers 5. Regulatory institutions 6. Social groups  These actors form a network at different organizational and geographical scales Relationship Between Globalization and Development  Globalization does not infer homogenization o Local cultures add their own aspect to imported consumer products in order to domesticate them o Many cultures promote a preference of local over foreign goods  Place still matters o Corporations choose distinct localities to succeed o Communities compete by flaunting local geographic benefits or differences to gain the upper hand  Winners of globalization include: o World cities, financial headquarter cities, corporate headquarters o Communities that can secure a piece of global commerce o Consumers who pay less for imported goods o Countries that use their low wage economies as a selling point to foreign firms  Losers include: o Unemployed workers caused by wage competition o The poor o Those affected by harmful environmental impacts o Those who emigrated and became impoverished o Average cities that are not world class 9 Connections between Globalization and Geography  Time Space “distanciation” or time-space compression o The intensification of worldwide social relation o Constraints of space on activities has reduced  Networks: o Connections between spaces o A set of interconnected nodes  Placelessness: o Loss of heterogeneity between places o Loss of diversity across cultural boundaries  Global Localization “Glocalization” o Places are both heterogeneous and homogeneous o Cultural, political, and economical processes have a “fixedness” Is Globalization Good or Bad?  Pros: o Many business-oriented benefits o Competition allows flow of capital to poorest areas o Increases wages o Consequences of change are uncertain  Cons: o More beneficial to developed worlds o Selective free trade o Contributing to ever-widening gap between rich and poor  Emerging middle position: o Economic globalization is unavoidable o Globalization holds both promises and pitfalls - can be managed at all scales to reduce inequality and protect the environment o Efficient government and strong organizations o Openness can work by investing in education and social cohesion 10 Lecture 8 & Chapter 10 – Landscape of Primary Activities Categories of Economic Activities  Primary: o economic activities that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind o Ex/ fishing, agriculture, mining  Secondary: o economic activities that process, transform, fabricate or assemble the raw materials derived from primary activities, or that reassemble, refinish or package manufactured goods o Ex/ Manufacturing, processing, construction  Tertiary: o activities where people offer their knowledge and time to improve productivity, performance, potential, and sustainability o Ex/ finance, retail  Quaternary: o economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information as well as distribution o Ex/ research, management  Quinary: o Executive decision makers o Involves high level decision making in large organizations Agriculture and Food Production  The science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of livestock  The most widespread and space-consuming activity globally  Factors that determine location of agricultural activity: 1. Physical - soils, climate 2. Cultural – technology, religion and ethnic abilities 3. Political – the state Domestication of Plants and Animals 11  Agriculture originated in the domestication of plants and then animals  Domestic plants and animals differ from their non-domesticated counterparts  Began roughly 12,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley  Diffused elsewhere, gradually replacing pre-agricultural economic activities (hunting and gathering)  Evolved in several centres in Asia, Africa, North American Midwest, Central America, western South America, and southern Europe  Possible causes: 1. Climate change or population pressure 2. Domestication was resorted to only when they encountered difficulties with food supply 3. Probably began in a well-endowed environment that permitted a more sedentary way of life and a certain amount of leisure time Technological Changes  Five principal technological advances have transformed/are transforming agricultural landscapes around the world: 1. A second agricultural revolution associated with the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century. o Development of new farming techniques o Increases in crop output because of improvement in productivity o Introduction of labour-saving machinery o The ability to feed a growing population 2. The development of nitrogen fertilizers in the early twentieth century. o Essential nutrient for cereal crops that have been staples for most parts of the world’s population since the beginnings of agriculture o Nitrogen fertilizers permitted world population to rise from 1.6 to 6.1 billion in the twentieth century o Environmental damage: soil and water contamination, increasing soil acidity, release of nitrous oxide, increase risk of some cancers 3. The 'green revolution' that began in the mid-twentieth century. o The rapid development of improved
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