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Final GEO Exam Notes.doc

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Western University
Geography 1400F/G
Godwin Arku

Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku Lecture Six and Chapter Eight: Politics and Space What is Political Geography? o Issues of conflict o Power and control over other people and space o Studies spatial dimension of human conflict and cooperation o Traditionally studied at a state level o Meaning political geography studies the actions of governments and institutions rather than those of actual people o Political geographers are interested in how humans: - Group themselves into nations - How those nations form the foundation of states - How states claim space as their territory - How sates compete for territory and negotiate boundaries between each other Key Concepts in Political Geography Nation o A group of people sharing a common culture/trait/identity and an attachment to some territory o Cultural trait can be: - Common mother tongue - Common ethnic ancestry - Common religion - Common history State o An area (as in ‘country’) and a political institution (as in ‘the authorities’) o Following features: - Covers a distinct space (the ‘territory’) - The limits of the territory are defined by boundaries to neighbouring states - The territory is ruled by one government that exercise control over the territory and those that live within it o Key facts about the ‘state’ 1. There can be no state without a defined territory where its laws are enforced 2. There can be no state without a set of laws that are in force across the territory 3. There can be no state without a population that enforces and follows the law Nation-State o A clearly-defined large group of people who self-identify as a group and occupy a spatially-defined territory with necessary infrastructure, social and political institutions Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku - Note: there are very few ‘true’ nation-states (examples: Japan, Iceland, Slovenia, Portugal) Stateless Nations o Nations that do not currently have state of their own o Example: the Basque living in Northern Spain and Southern France want to form their own state o Example: Kurds living dispersed across Turkey, Iraq, Syria – pushing for a sovereign state to be carved out of northern Iraq Multi-National States o Where a state’s population is formed by two or more distinct nations o Examples include: - Belgium: shared between French speaking Walloons in the south, Dutch-speaking Flemings in the north, and a German speaking minority in the Easy - Switzerland: incorporates speakers of German, Fench, and Italian - Great Britain: English, Scots, Welsh, Cornish, Northern Ireland - Canada: French, English, Aboriginals Nationalism o The belief tat a nation (cultural group, or large group of people who self-identify as a group) and a state (political unit) should be congruent o Nationalism assumes that the nation-state is the natural political unit and that any other basis for state delimitation is inappropriate Exploration and Colonialism Exploration o Most empires began as a result of exploratory activity Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku Colonialism o Economic, social, and political activity in explored areas that became colonies were determined by and for the exploring power Decolonization o Number of states in the world has increased - Achieved independence from colonial power - Many reflect national groupings, but some occupy areas around which Europeans drew boundaries for their own reasons Effects of Colonialization o Net losses to the national economies of the colonial powers, benefiting the stock exchange and a few individuals rather than state treasuries o Offered a way to reduce population pressure o Dependency Theory (colonies became poor, colonial powers became wealthy) Conceptual State Creation o Recent philosophical discussions of state creation and expansion Ratzel o Seven laws concerning with the spatial growth of states (Box 8.2 pg 310) 1. The size of a state increases as its culture develops 2. The growth of a state is subsequent to other manifestations of the growth of a people 3. States growth through a process of annexing smaller members. As this occurs, the human-land relationships become more intimate Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku 4. State boundaries are peripheral organs that take part in all transformations of the organism of the state 5. As a state grows, it strives to occupy some politically valuable locations 6. The initial stimulus for state growth is external 7. States’ tendency to grow continually increases in intensity o Generalizations based on observations of a supposed ideal world o Notion of the state as a living organism Jones o Chain of events beginning with political idea and concluding with creation of political area o Between idea and area are: decision, movement, field o Therefore: - Political idea  decision  movement  field  political area - Example – the creation of Israel: zionism  Balfour Declaration of 1917  immigration of Jews  settlement and government activity  Israel Deutsch o Process of state creation involves up to eight stages 1. Transition from subsistence to exchange economy 2. Increased mobility leading to formation of core areas 3. Development of urban centers 4. Growth of network of communications 5. Spatial concentration of capital 6. Increasing group identity 7. Rise of national identity 8. Creation of state o Emphasizes evolution and focuses primarily on human actions Geopolitics and Geopolitik What is Geopolitics? o Geopolitics: the ways in which states, and institutions apply geographical knowledge and principles to enhance their power vis-à-vis their competitors Theories of Geopolitics Heartland Theory o Theory of world power based on the assumption that the land- based state of controlling the Eurasian heartland held the key to world domination o Summary: - He who rules Eastern Europe commands the Heartland - He who rules the Heartland commands the World Island - He who rules the world island commands world Geopolitik Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku o Study of states as organisms that choose to expand in territory in order to fulfill their destinies as nation-states - I.e. ‘survival of the fittest’ Rimland Theory: o Theory of world power based on the assumption that the state controlling the area surrounding Eurasian heartland held the key to world domination Forces Determining Stability of States Centrifugal Centripetal - Forces that tear a state - Forces that tend to bind a apart state together - When it exceeds - When it exceeds centripetal forces, a state centrifugal forces, a state is unstable (i..e internal is stable (i.e. extensive divisions in language or transportation and religion; weak communication institutions, separatist infrastructure, religion, movements, etc.) history, language, strong ethnic identity, central institution, etc. Boundaries What is a Boundary? o Marks the limit of a states sovereignty o Lines dawn where states meet or where states’ territorial waters end o Artificial in the sense that what is meaningful in one context may be meaningless in another The importance of international boundaries: o They separate states from each other to avoid conflict over the extent of territorial space o They establish how far the territorial authority of a state extends o Boundaries can be physical or cultural in character Types of Boundaries o Physical or natural boundaries: - A river - Mountain range o Cultural or Artificial Boundaries - Religious boundaries - Language boundaries o Geometric boundary - Straight lines or arcs that have been drawn on a map and then transferred to the real landscape Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku - Types: 1. Antecedent boundaries: those that eisted before the current cultural landcape was established by the current populaiton 2. Subsequent boundaries: those that were drawn after the current cultural landscape was established o Relic boundaries: those that are no longer functioning as such, but are visible on the cultural landscape – (i.e. Berlin wall or boundary between east and west Germany) Boundary Disputes Positional Disputes o Disagreements over: - The interpretation of existing documents that define a boundary - The way the boundary was delimited Territorial Disputes o Dispute over ownership of a region (i.e. Kashir) Resource Disputes o Territorial conflict over resources (i.e. oil reservoir known as the Rumailia field was the source of the 1991 Gulf War) Function Disputes o States disagree over polices to be applied long a boundary (i.e. immigration policies) Grouping of States European Integration o Principle example: established following WWII in 1945 - European Economic Community (1957) – The European Union - European Fair Trade Association (1960) - Commission of the European Communities (1967) - Large expansion of European Union (1994) Other groupings of States o Essentially limited to establishing and maintain trade blocs (NAFTA, ASEAN) o Several other groups now established o Most influential is UN  most countries are members, states in the less developed world make up the majority Forms of Government o Two principal political philosophies today are capitalism and socialism, a number of related or alternative ideas are also important o Democracy: rule by the people o Monarchy: rule by single person Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku o Oligarchy: rule by a few, usually those in possession of wealth o Dictatorship: oppressive and arbitrary form of rule established and maintained by force and intimidation o Anarchism: rejects the concept of state and associated division of society into ‘rulers’ and ‘ruled’ Socialist Less-developed States o Socialism is an imprecise term, but we can identify two general characteristics of socialist regimes: - They aim to remove an of all features of capitalism - Hey have the power, in principle to make substantial changes to society  Neither of these characteristics has been met with popular approval  Socialism has a strong, anti-colonial, nationalistic component Substate Governments o In many states, political authority is not entirely centralized at the national level o Three levels of centralization: 1. Unitary: the most centralized form of government; local governments are used by the central state to organize the political hinterland 2. Federal: the least centralized – one purpose is to prevent one level of government from dictating another 3. Compound unitary: midway between the federal and unitary types – these systems devolve substantial powers to subnational governments but less power than in the federal case (type one and two) Exercising State Power o State apparatus: institutions and organizations through which the state exercises its power - Example: central bank to regulate economic affairs - Helps provide goods and services o Public goods: goods that are freely available to all or that are provided (equally or unequally) to citizens by the state o Critical issue regarding the power exercised by individual states is the need for international co-operation in solving global environmental problems Elections: Geography Matters o In analysis of elections, geography is an important factor: in the boundaries of voting districts, voting behaviour, government activity, and larger world issues Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku - Legitimacy of Elections:  Free versus compromised elections Recent elections in 154 countries identified 39 as compromised, mostly in Africa and Asia - Creating Electoral Bias:  Gerrymandering: any spatial reorganization designed to favour a particular party  Malapportionment: a form of gerrymandering involving the creation of electoral districts of varying population sizes so that one party will benefit Voting and Place o It is not uncommon to assert that class is a dominant influence of voting behviour, but place also matters o Local influences of voting 1. Sectional effects 2. Environmental effects 3. Campaign effects 4. Contextual effects o Any successful political party needs to develop a strong social and spatial base and a meaningful analysis of election needs to consider both factors Lecture Seven: Globalization Globalization o The increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change o The process of reducing barriers between countries and encouraging closer economic, social, and political interaction o An accelerating set of processes involving flows that encompass ever-greater numbers of the world spaces and that lead to increasing integration and interconnectivity among those spaces o Two key points: 1. Refers to “processes” 2. Geographical implications – interconnection between spaces and people Elements of Economic Globalization o Emergence of global communication system that link all regions on the planet instantaneously o Transnational corporate strategies that have created global corporations o New forms of production of goods and services o Emergence of new centers of production o Emergence of global financial systems o Emergence of new forms of technology Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku o Market economies that replace state controlled economies o A plethora of planetary goods and services that have arisen to fulfill consumer demand o Global agreement that promote free trade Other Aspects of Globalization o Cultural: global information, education, media, lifestyle, entertainment, fashion and design o Political: global political institutions, power blocs, democracy as the dominant system of governance o Environmental: global ecosystem, global pollution, pandemics, global conservation movements and politics Two Major Forces in Shaping Globalization 1. Technology change - Through internet, satellite communication, and other innovations have shrunk time and space 2. Global capitalism - Embrace of “capitalism”, “neoliberal”, “free market” policies Is Globalization New? o Yes and No o Some antecedents - European journey of world discovery during the Dark Ages – leading to global independence - Creation colonial empires – creating global trade connection and diffusion of European culture - Mass production during the Industrial Revolution – created global search for raw material What is ‘new’ about the Global Economy? o Global scales of activities o Greater speed o Global integration (interconnectedness) o Single globalized market (Global village) o Vast consumer products o Larger participants (people and counties) o A new global division of labour What is the Main Views About Globalization? The Hyper globalist Position 1. The world is borderless 2. Nation-states are no longer significant actors 3. Consumer tastes and cultures are homogenized 4. Distance no longer matters –‘end of geography’ Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku o “Today’s global economy is genuinely borderless. Information, capital, and innovation flow all over the world at top speed, enabled by technology and fueled by consumers’ desires for access to the best and least expensive products” The Skeptical Position 1. ‘Newness’ of global economy is exaggerated 2. World economy more open and integrated in the past 50 years than today o “Globalization seems to be as much an overstatement as it is an ideology and analytical concept” Globalization’s Actors 1. TNCs 2. The state 3. Labour 4. Consumers 5. Regulatory institutions 6. Social groups o These actors form a network at different organizational and geographical scales Relationship Between Globalization and Development o Globalization does not necessarily mean “homogenization” - Local cultures tend to “domesticate” indigenize” and “tame” imported consumer culture by giving it a local flavor - Many cultures promote a consumer nationalism that encourages local over “foreign” goods o Place still matters - Corporations choose distinct localities to succeed - Communities compete by touting local geographic benefits or differences in their campaigns o Globalization has winners and losers - Winners are:  World cities or centers of global finance, corporate decision-making, etc.  Communities that are able to secure a piece of global commerce  Consumers who pay less for goods coming from low cost production abroad  Counties that have transformed their low-wage economies into destinations for firms - Losers are:  Those who have lost their jobs due to wage competition  Those too impoverished to take any advantage  Those affected by pollution and harmful environmental Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku outcomes  People who emigrate but becomes impoverished in their new destination  ‘Ordinary’ cities – not world class o Scale is important, including: - Global, local, and several ‘middle level scales’ Connections between Globalization and Geography 1. Time-Space ‘distinciation’; Time-Space ‘compression’ - The intensification of worldwide social relations - Constraints of space on activities has reduced - Anthony Giddens 2. Networks - Connections between spaces - A set of interconnected nodes (networks – finance, trade ,transportation, media, etc) - Example of a network: “Commodity chains” – a complex network of people, labour, and production processes starting with the extraction of raw materials from the earth itself and ending with your purchase of the final production” 3. Placelessness - Loss of heterogeneity between places (deterritorialization) - Or loss of diversity across cultural boundaires – “McDonalidization” 4. Globa-local – “glocalization” - Places are both heterogeneous and homogeneous - Cultural, political, and economic processes have a “fixedness” (i.e. place still matters) Globalization: Good or Bad? Pro-globalization stance o Many business-oriented benefits o Competition allows flow of capital to poorest areas o Increases wages o Consequences of change are uncertain Critics of globalization o More beneficial to developed worlds o Selective free trade o Contributing to ever widening gap between rich and poor A middle position o Economic globalization is unavoidable o Globalization holds both promises and pitfalls – can be managed at all scales to reduce inequality and protect the environment o Efficient government and strong organizations o “Openness” can work by investing in education and social Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku cohesion o “The world market is a source of disruption and upheaval as much as it is an opportunity for profit and economic growth. Without the complementary institutions at home – in the areas of governance, judiciary, civil and political liberties, social insurance, and education – one gets too much of the former and too little of the latter” Lecture Eight and Chapter Ten: Landscapes of Primary Activities Categories of Economic Activity Primary o What are primary activities? - Economic activities that are concern directly with natural resources of any kind - Examples:  Agriculture  Fishing  Gathering industries  Extractive industries (i.e. oil extraction) Secondary o What are secondary activities? - Economic activities that process, transform, fabricate or assemble the raw materials derived from primary activities or that reassemble, refinish or package manufactured goods - Examples:  Manufacturing  Processing  Construction  Power production Tertiary o What are tertiary activities? - Activities where people offer their knowledge and time to improve productivity, performance, potential, and sustainability - Examples:  Wholesaling and retailing  Financial services  Personal and professional services Quaternary o What are quaternary activities? - Economic activities that deal with handling and processing of knowledge and information as well as distribution - Examples: Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku  Information  Research  Management Quinary o Executive decision makers  involves high level decision making in large organizations Model of Economic Transition Agriculture o The science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of livestock o Key fact: it is the most widespread and space-consuming activity globally Factors that determine location of agricultural activities o Physical - Climate change - Soils - Topographical relief o Cultural - Technology - Religion and ethnicity o Political - The state Domesticating Plants and Animals o “The imprint of the past is still clearly to be seen in the world pattern of agriculture. To understand the present it is essential to Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku know something of the evolution of the modern types of agriculture.' (Grigg, 1974:1) Early Domestication and Diffusion o Agriculture originated in the domestication of plants and then animals - Domestic plants and animals differ from their non- domesticated counterparts - Began roughly 12 000 years ago in the Jordan Valley  Diffused elsewhere, gradually replacing pre-agricultural economic activities (hunting and gathering)  Evolved in several centers in Asia, Africa, North America Midwest, Central America, Western South America, Southern Europe Possible Causes of Domestication o Some researchers suggest that domestication was something that humans resorted to only when they encountered difficulties o Explanations: - Casual experimentation with plant and animal breeding probably began in a well-endowed environment that permitted a more sedentary way of life and a certain amount of leisure time - Climate change or population pressure (or a combination) might have prompted a search for new supplies Technological Changes and their Impact on Agricultural Development o Many agricultural landscapes today emerged in response to the European overseas movement and/or to the demands of new population concentrations o Agricultural commercialization at the time was merely one component of substantial growth and change in the larger world economy o Five principal technological advances have transformed/are transforming agricultural landscapes around the world: 1. A second agricultural revolution associated with the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century. 2. The development of nitrogen fertilizers in the early twentieth century. 3. The 'green revolution' that began in the mid-twentieth century. 4. The biotechnology revolution that began in the late twentieth century and that, despite much opposition, is proceeding apace today. 5. The ongoing transition in some areas from ploughing the soil Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku prior to planting to the use of no-till strategies. Second Agricultural Revolution: England after 1750 o Great gulf in productivity did not begin until the seventeenth century o In mid-nineteenth century commercial agriculture became established on a large scale and the present pattern of activity began o Resolution involved: 1. Development of new farming techniques 2. Increases in crop output because of improvement in productivity 3. Introduction of labour-saving machinery 4. The ability to feed a growing population Nitrogen Fertilizers o Perhaps the most important development after the second agricultural revolution o Essential nutrient for cereal crops that have been staples for the most parts of the world’s population since beginnings of agriculture - Added through rainfall  Inadequate natural input without crop rotation  Nitrogen fertilizers permitted world population to rise from 1.6 to 6.1 billion in the 20 century - Environmental damage: soil and water contamination, increasing soil acidity, release of nitrous oxide, increase risk of some cancers The ‘Green Revolution’ o The rapid development of improved plant and animal strains and their introduction to the economics of the less-developed world - Until 1960s: less-developed world didn’t benefit from these changes  Many instances of widespread hunger, malnutrition, and dependence of food aid - Creation of agricultural research system designed to transfer technologies to the less developed world  Genetic improvements  Expanded use of fertilizers  Other chemical inputs  Irrigation o New strains and technologies allowed some farmers to grow enough notonly to subsist but to market surplus production - Raised farm incomes, stimulated rural non-farm economy Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku - Better nutrition: higher calorie consumption, more diversified diets Criticisms: o Economic circumstances: displacement of poor tenant farmers o Undesirable environmental consequences: excessive and inappropriate use of fertilizers has resulted in water pollution unwanted damage to insects and other wildlife, water shortages, serious health problems o Social and political implications: expert knowledge accepted as fact/downgrading of local knowledge Biotechnology o Un the future, significant gains will likely be made through developments in this area - Tissue culturing - DNA sequencing - Alternation of genetic composition of organisms o Much promise but much controversy - Approved genetically modified crops are banned in parts of the world; uncertain safety No Till: A Quiet Agricultural Revolution? o No-till farming was the norm unitl the invention of the plough and the use of domesticated animals to pull ploughs o Huggins and Reganold six principle benefits of no-till agriculture: 1. Reduces soil erosion 2. Conserves water 3. Improves health of soil 4. Lowers fuel and labour costs because of less tillage 5. Reduces sediment and fertilizer pollution of nearby water bodies 6. Sequesters carbon o Huggins and Reganold seven tradeoffs of no-till agriculture: 1. Transition from conventional to no-till farming may be difficult because many other changes are needed 2. Needed equipment is costly 3. There is heavier reliance on herbicides 4. There may be some unexpected changes in weeds and disease 5. At first more nitrogen fertilizer may be needed 6. Germination may be slower and there may be a reduction in yields Types of Agriculture Primitive subsistence agriculture of “shifting” Geo 1400 Final Exam Notes April 22, 2013 Prof. Arku o Subsistence farming o Practices almost exclusively in tropical areas o Steps: selecting location, removing vegetation, sowing crops on the cleared land o Minimal land prep o Minimal care to crops Wet rice farming o Subsistence farming o Rural East Asia o Small area of land needed; large amount of human labour o Flat land adjacent to rivers o Crop is submerged under slow moving water for extended periods Pastoral nomadism o Subsistence farming o Practiced in hot/dry and cold/dry areas of Africa, Arabia, and Asia o Declining due to new technologies, changing social and economic circumstances o Subsistence-oriented – rely on their herds for milk and wool o Meat is rarely eaten; livestock rarely sold Mediterranean agriculture o Subsistence farming o Associated with a particular climate (mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers) o Three components 1. Wheat and barely 2. Vine and tree crops (grapes, olives, figs) 3. Grazing land for sheep and goats o Technological innovation has led to increase in irrigation, decline in wheat cultivation Mixe
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