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Final

Geography 1400F/G Final: Geo 1400 FINAL.docx


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1400F/G
Professor
Godwin Arku
Study Guide
Final

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Geography 1400G
Final Exam 2015
Taylor Ross

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Table of Contents
1. Lecture 6 & Chapter 7 – Cultures and Landscapes
Introducing culture (see textbook page 248)
A complex term that typically refers to the way of life of the members of society.
Also usually understood as referring to our ability first to analyze and then to
change the physical environments that we encounter.
What is culture? (Lecture slides)
How one conceptualizes or ‘philosophizes’ about ‘culture’ will impact how one
applies or approaches the concept of culture and how one makes a fair, ethical,
interpretation of landscapes
Has various definitions:
oArtistic & intellectual product of elites
oSystem of shared beliefs
oCapabilities and habits acquired by members of a society
oTotality of a shared, learned “way of life”: doing and thinking
Textbook definition: the specialized behavioural patterns, understandings,
adaptions & social systems that constitute a peoples learned way of life’
Characteristics of culture (lecture slides)
Human creation:
oInvented, practiced, changed, maintained by people
Medium of expression
oEverything humans know, use, or invent – material or immaterial-
expresses or reveals something about humanity, about culture
Spatial
oHow space is used, organized, arranged, and ascribed meaning or identity
by people reveals culture
oSpace is a medium of cultural expression
Political
oCultural expressions are ‘site of struggle’: whose culture is acceptable?
Where? When? By whom?
Dynamic & Constant
oChange vs. tradition
Scale Varies:
oGlobal to local
Plurality:
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oMany cultures within and across societies
Overlap
oSub-cultures overlap creating still other sub-cultures
Structure of culture (see textbook page 248-250; lecture slides)
Non-material culture has two components:
1. Mentifacts: key attitudinal elements or values such as language and
religion
Ideas
Beliefs
Knowledge
E.g. family “dinners”
2. Sociofacts: the norms involved in group function, such as rules about
family structure
Patterns
Organizations of human relations
E.g. family
Material culture:
1. Artifacts: Comprises all the human-made physical objects and elements
related to people’s lives ad livelihood, and thus includes the human
landscape.
Material objects
Tools
Techniques
E.g. house
Cultural landscapes (refer to guest lecture slides)
Plurality of cultures
Plurality of ‘ways of seeing’
oCultural groups
oSites, areas, places, regions
oPeople and activities
oArtifacts, Mentifacts, Sociofacts
Human environments (lands) & ways of seeing (scapes)
Cultural landscapes may be…
oSeparate in space
oOverlap in space
oConflicts in space
“Environment sustains us as creatures,
landscapes reveal us as cultures” (D. Meinig)
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