Geo 2010 Chp1.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

Chapter 1: Regions of Canada “Region is an area of the earth’s surface defined by its distinctive human and or natural characteristics”—Bone  Distinctive part of earth’s surface—climate or landforms  All regions have spatial extent, location, boundaries, either formal or functional and can fit into a hierarchy (5 common characteristics) Region  Physical or Cultural o E.g. language, physical characteristics  Formal or Functional o Formal: uniform—one factor. Presence or absence of specific characteristics o Functional: based on interaction—interaction of each region and look for series of regions that are related  E.g. regional airline center points, newspaper press points in London  Boundaries—transition zones o E.g. tree lines of Canada o Boundaries represent transitional zone  Hierarchy o All regions can be ranked and arranged hierarchically o All regions have spatial extent o Region must have a location  Human construct—infinite number o Regions are human constructs o Regions are artificial creations created by humans to serve some purposes for us Regions of Canada  Ontario (Central Canada—southern Ontario and southern Quebec)  Quebec  British Columbia (Western Mountains)  Western Canada (Prairies)  Atlantic Canada (Eastern Canada)  Territorial North Why Regionalize and Why these Regions  Manageable sections  Identifiable physical features  Breakdown in on a provincial basis—facilitates statistics  Commonly used by media and scholars Functional Regional Framework  Core/periphery o Core/heartland is the economic focus industrial and manufacturing part of country o Periphery being everything else—also called hinterland o Heartland/hinterland model interacts then see the framework to look at the interaction between them  Exists at different scales—global, regional, local Where in Canada (Regional scale)  Traditionally, core southern Ontario and Southern Quebec—not entirely  300 mile wide band between Windsor and Quebec city—the Main Street (also called Windsor-Quebec Axis) Definition of Core and Heartland  Core o Manufacturing and industrial o Geographically relatively small o Relatively urban o Diverse economy—less prone to recession o Receives raw materials from periphery o Decision-making (corporation headquarters) o Factors of production o Densely populated  Periphery o Primary (agriculture and fishing) o Geographically relatively large o Relatively rural o Resource based o Purchases finished goods from core o Receives decisions o Receives factors of production o Sparsely populated  Traditionally, away from the core o Regional disparity increases o Average income decreased o Unemployment increases  Since 1980s, these “regularities” have started to change Friedman’s Model  Divided the peripheries o Upward transitional o Downward transitional o Resource frontier To generate growth in local economy, staple needs to be associated with  Settled population  Growing population (immigration, not natural increase) Staples Theory  Fish (East) o Wet and dry fishery  Furs o East slowly moving west as resources exploited  Timber o East slowly moving west as resources exploited  Wheat o Ontario and later the West o People settled in southern Ontario—good soil, attracted more settlers resulting in growing population  Energy o Started in Ontario but now dominated by the West  Only one staple met these requirements—wheat (grown in the early 19 century in Ontario)  With these requirements met, linkages could be generated (i.e. economic spinoffs of the staple product industry)  Linkages o Generate growth in the local economy  Backward linkages—suppliers to the staple industry  Forward linkages—local processing before export  Final demand linkages—supply needs of staple workers and their families o Southern Ontario received an early boost (growth) to its economy due to these linkages  Subsequent events helping to consolidate core status (further economic growth) Historical Dates  1867—confederation (Canada becomes Canada)  1879—national policy  Energy availability—specifically early electricity (Niagara falls) more growth to southern Ontario  Political and resource frontiers pushed westward Stages in Canada’s Regional Development  Largely based on dominant direction of trade (the national policy) o Confederation to the 1960s  East/West trade pattern o 1965 Auto Pact to creation of WTO in 1995  Promoting more north/south trade patterns o 1995 to present  Global trade  Increasingly participated in Canada and World as a whole Introduction  Canada is best understood from a regional perspective—huge, diverse country  Canada consists six regions with each having distinct location o Physical and historical development  Strong regional identity shaped over time o Due to challenges (economic, physical, social) o Related to proximity of US  3 fundamental parts o Geography and history o Powerful tension between regions and Ottawa o Each region had unique economic position within Canada  Spatial conceptual framework based on the core and periphery model o Understand both nature of socio-economic process behind Canada’s regionalization o Canada’s faultline identifies and addressed tension = spatial identity Geography as a discipline  Geography provides a description and explanation of lands, places and people beyond our personal experiences  Geography is destiny—it determines life chances, experiences and opportunities  Product of region’s physical geography, historical events, and economic situations o Regional identity: person’s association with a place or region and their sense of belonging to a collectivity o Consciousness: aware of a community and sense of sharing o Regional self-interest: a logical outcome of regional identity and consciousness— shows its face in the centralist/decentralist faultline Regional Geography  Geographic study of a particular part of the world—the interplay of humans and physical geography which results in understanding society, and a sense of place what makes the region “tick”  Region: area defined by human or natural characteristics  Boundaries are often transitional zones where characteristics merge  Today’s geographers focus on human side since physical environment is largely mediated through culture, economy, and technology  Power of place o Economic, political, and cultural power derives from a region’s resource wealth and geographic location combined with global economic trends o Place-city, region, country o Contributing to changing geographic balance of power in Canada o Growing resource demands from developing world (China and India) will lead to higher resource prices which will lead to growing economic power for Alberta, B.C., and Saskatchewan—Canada’s resource rich provinces  Sense of place o Intense special feelings people have for an area they live o Considered a social product, can be applied to different geographic levels—local, regional, national o Sense of identity/belonging tied to a particular geographical place or region o Can stem from the natural environment (e.g. common scenery such as coastline or mountains), shared common experience—can be positive or negative, common political/historical experience o Generates a strong local culture Regionalism  Division of countries or areas of the earth into different natural/political/cultural parts  Why is Canada not a homogeneous state like the US o Geographic size and physical geography creates a natural regional divisions o Regions have a north and south orientation that encourages internal divisions within Canada and on a north American scale—continentalism which is policies that promote free trade and economic ties with US o Each region experienced a different pattern of historic settlement and relationship with aboriginal peoples, which together provided a distinct cultural base  In turn, the more recent immigration of people from around the world has created a pluralistic society—small groups within larger society are permitted to maintain their unique cultural identities (multiculturalism) that contains a si
More Less

Related notes for Geography 2010A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.