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Geography 2010A/B Study Guide - Regional Geography, Regional Airline, Eastern Canada


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 2010A/B
Professor
Suzanne Greaves

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Chapter 1: Regions of Canada
“Region is an area of the earth’s surface defined by its distinctive human and or natural
characteristics”Bone
Distinctive part of earth’s surface—climate or landforms
All regions have spatial extent, location, boundaries, either formal or functional and can fit
into a hierarchy (5 common characteristics)
Region
Physical or Cultural
o E.g. language, physical characteristics
Formal or Functional
o Formal: uniformone factor. Presence or absence of specific characteristics
o Functional: based on interactioninteraction of each region and look for series of
regions that are related
E.g. regional airline center points, newspaper press points in London
Boundariestransition zones
o E.g. tree lines of Canada
o Boundaries represent transitional zone
Hierarchy
o All regions can be ranked and arranged hierarchically
o All regions have spatial extent
o Region must have a location
Human constructinfinite number
o Regions are human constructs
o Regions are artificial creations created by humans to serve some purposes for us
Regions of Canada
Ontario (Central Canadasouthern Ontario and southern Quebec)
Quebec
British Columbia (Western Mountains)
Western Canada (Prairies)
Atlantic Canada (Eastern Canada)
Territorial North
Why Regionalize and Why these Regions
Manageable sections
Identifiable physical features
Breakdown in on a provincial basisfacilitates statistics
Commonly used by media and scholars
Functional Regional Framework
Core/periphery
o Core/heartland is the economic focus industrial and manufacturing part of country
o Periphery being everything elsealso called hinterland
o Heartland/hinterland model interacts then see the framework to look at the
interaction between them
Exists at different scalesglobal, regional, local
Where in Canada (Regional scale)

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Traditionally, core southern Ontario and Southern Quebecnot entirely
300 mile wide band between Windsor and Quebec citythe Main Street (also called
Windsor-Quebec Axis)
Definition of Core and Heartland
Core
o Manufacturing and industrial
o Geographically relatively small
o Relatively urban
o Diverse economyless prone to recession
o Receives raw materials from periphery
o Decision-making (corporation headquarters)
o Factors of production
o Densely populated
Periphery
o Primary (agriculture and fishing)
o Geographically relatively large
o Relatively rural
o Resource based
o Purchases finished goods from core
o Receives decisions
o Receives factors of production
o Sparsely populated
Traditionally, away from the core
o Regional disparity increases
o Average income decreased
o Unemployment increases
Since 1980s, these “regularities” have started to change
Friedman’s Model
Divided the peripheries
o Upward transitional
o Downward transitional
o Resource frontier
To generate growth in local economy, staple needs to be associated with
Settled population
Growing population (immigration, not natural increase)
Staples Theory
Fish (East)
o Wet and dry fishery
Furs
o East slowly moving west as resources exploited
Timber
o East slowly moving west as resources exploited
Wheat
o Ontario and later the West
o People settled in southern Ontariogood soil, attracted more settlers resulting in
growing population
Energy
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o Started in Ontario but now dominated by the West
Only one staple met these requirementswheat (grown in the early 19th century in Ontario)
With these requirements met, linkages could be generated (i.e. economic spinoffs of the
staple product industry)
Linkages
o Generate growth in the local economy
Backward linkagessuppliers to the staple industry
Forward linkageslocal processing before export
Final demand linkagessupply needs of staple workers and their families
o Southern Ontario received an early boost (growth) to its economy due to these
linkages
Subsequent events helping to consolidate core status (further economic growth)
Historical Dates
1867confederation (Canada becomes Canada)
1879national policy
Energy availabilityspecifically early electricity (Niagara falls) more growth to southern
Ontario
Political and resource frontiers pushed westward
Stages in Canada’s Regional Development
Largely based on dominant direction of trade (the national policy)
o Confederation to the 1960s
East/West trade pattern
o 1965 Auto Pact to creation of WTO in 1995
Promoting more north/south trade patterns
o 1995 to present
Global trade
Increasingly participated in Canada and World as a whole
Introduction
Canada is best understood from a regional perspectivehuge, diverse country
Canada consists six regions with each having distinct location
o Physical and historical development
Strong regional identity shaped over time
o Due to challenges (economic, physical, social)
o Related to proximity of US
3 fundamental parts
o Geography and history
o Powerful tension between regions and Ottawa
o Each region had unique economic position within Canada
Spatial conceptual framework based on the core and periphery model
o Understand both nature of socio-economic process behind Canada’s regionalization
o Canada’s faultline identifies and addressed tension = spatial identity
Geography as a discipline
Geography provides a description and explanation of lands, places and people beyond our
personal experiences
Geography is destinyit determines life chances, experiences and opportunities
Product of region’s physical geography, historical events, and economic situations
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