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Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

Regions of Canada Region: “an area of the earth’s surface defined by its distinctive human and/or natural characteristics” (Bone) Distinctive part of earth’s surface—climate of landforms - Physical or cultural (ex. Language, physical characteristics) - Formal (uniform—one factor. Presence or absence of specific characteristic) or functional (based on interaction—interaction of each region look for series of region that are related ex. Regional airline centerpoint and series of outline points where outline points interact with center, but not necessarily between the outline points. Ex. Newspaper press points in London) - Boundaries – transition zones (ex. Tree line of Canada. Boundaries represent transitional zone.) - Hierarchy (all regions can be ranked arranged hierarchically. All regions have spatial extent. Region must have location) - Human constructs – infinite number (regions are human constructs. Regions are artificial creations crated by humans to serve some purposes for us) - All regions have spatial extent, location, boundaries, either formal or functional AND can fit into a hierarchy (5 common characteristics) Regions of Canada: 1. Ontario (central Canada—includes Ontario and Quebec. More specifically southern Ontario and southern Quebec) 2. Quebec 3. British Columbia (Western Mountains—dominated by mountain ranges 4. Western Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba —Prairies Provinces 5. Atlantic Canada (Eastern Canada—P.E.I., New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador) 6. Territorial North (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut) Why? Why regionalize and why these regions? 1. Manageable sections (or chunks. To discuss in detail. Facilitates discussion easier) 2. Identifiable physical features (ex. Interior plains/Canadian Shield/Appalachian Mountains in Atlantic Canada/harsh cold climate in territorial north) relatively balance in geographical area? 3. Breakdown is on a provincial basis – statistics (facilitates statistics—easy to find information) 4. Commonly used by media and scholars (Widely utilized. Goes back to the first point) Functional Regional Framework - Core/periphery (traditionally, core/heartland is the economic focus industrial and manufacturing part of country and periphery being everything else. Model interacts with core and periphery then see the framework to look at the interaction between them), heartland/hinterland model ( - Exists at different scales (core has traditionally been Europe and North America. Everything else is periphery) o e.g. global, regional, local Where in Canada? (in regional scale) - Traditionally, CORE Southern Ontario and Southern Quebec—not the entirety, periphery being everything else - 300 mile wide band between Windsor and Quebec City – i.e. “Main Street “ Canada – aka Windsor – Quebec Axis Definition of Core/Periphery or Heartland/Hinterland Core Periphery - manu./ind. (drives overall industry) - primary (agri, fishing) - geog., relatively small - geog., relatively large - Relatively urban - relatively rural - Diverse economy (less prone to recession?) - Resource based - Receives raw materials from periphery - purchases finished goods from core - Decision-making/corp. headquarters - receives decisions - Factors of production - receives factors of production - Densely populated - sparsely populated - Traditionally, away from core, regional disparity increases Average income decreases Unemployment increases - since 1980
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