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Geography 2010A/B Study Guide - Clifford Sifton, Woolly Mammoth, Indigenous Peoples Of The Eastern Woodlands


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 2010A/B
Professor
Suzanne Greaves

Page:
of 6
The First People
- Old World hunters
o Around 30000 years ago
o Crossed a land bridge known as Beringia around 15000 years ago, Beringia below sea level
o Some archaeologists speculate that Old World hunters may have penetrated into the lands
much earlier through migrating along the edge of the Cordillera ice sheet by island-hopping
(however there is lack of evidence to prove this theory)
- Paleo Indians descendants of Old World hunters
o First people of North America
o Known for using fluted stone spearhead
o With the extinction of big-animals such as woolly mammoth, they developed new techniques
such as extensive fish and plants to supplement diet
o Algonquians are direct descendants of Paleo-Indians
- Indians
o Climate differences required Indians to adapt their agricultural system accordingly
o Indians in eastern US planted corn, beans, and squash (known as the Three Sisters)
o Athapaskans are direct descendants of Indians
- Arctic migration
o Was settled much later than the forested lands of the Subarctic
o 2 develops were necessary in order people to inhabit in the artic
1. Melting of the ice sheets that covered Arctic Canada
2. The emergence of a hunting technique that would enable people to live in an Arctic
environment
o The Thule people, developed a sophisticated sea-hunting culture ancestors of Inuits, hunted
bowhead whale, walrus seals, and caribou
o Initial contact
o At first contact, there were many as 500,000 aboriginals.. By 1871, only 122,700
o European settlers spread new diseases to the aboriginals (eg. Huronia; the biggest tribe)
o John Cabot is the first European explorer to land in Canada
- Culture regions
o Seven aboriginal culture regions:
1. Eastern woodlands: Iroquois and Huron
2. Eastern subarctic: Cree occupied; developed snowshoes
3. Western subarctic: Athapaskans occupied
4. Arctic: Inuits occupied
5. Plains
6. Plateau
7. Northwest coast: Indians harvest rich marine life
The Second People
- Quebec city, founded in 1608 by Samuel de Chaplain was the first permanent settlement in
Canda
- First large wave of British immigrants are loyalist refugees from the US
Supported American War of Independece (1775 - 1783)
- Second large wave of immigrants from the British Isle (1790 1860)
Almost a million people -> due to deteriorating economic conditions in Great Britain
- Canada began as a collection of 4 small British colonies: Upper and lower Canada, New
Brunswick, and Nova Scotia
By 1867, 92% of Canadian population was either French or English
In English Canda, the notion of equal provinces grew out of the following factors:
o The nature of Confederation was such that provincial powers were shared equally
o The British formed the majority of the population in ¾ provinces, thereby dominating
political affairs
o The British, while a minority in Québec, were the dominant business group
- English speaking mixture of English, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh
The Third People
- Completion of Canadian Pacific Railyway in 1885
- Ottawa obtained the vast land of Hudsons Bay Company in 1970
- There were two key advantages in encouraging settlement
1. The threat of American settlers moving into the Canadian west and annexing these lands
would be diminished
2. The creation of a grain economy would provide freight for the CPR, thereby helping turn in
into a viable operation
- Clifford Sifton launched aggressive advertising campaign to lure people to settle in western
Canada
- From 1901 to 1921, Western Canadas population increased from 400,000 to 2 million
The Territorial Evolution of Canada
- British North America Act on July 1, 1867 uniting New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Upper &
Lower(Ontario & Quebec) Canada
- In 1870, the Deed of Surrender transferred Ruperts Land and North-Western Territory to the
federal government province of Manitoba is established
- In 1871, BC joins confederation
- In 1873, PEI joins Canada
- In 1905, Alberta and Saskatchewan are created
- In 1949, Newfoundland joins Canada
National Boundaries
- Southern boundaries of New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario were formed when the British and
US signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783
- The last major territorial dispute between Britain and US took over the Oregon Territory
Internal Boundaries
- In 1881, boundaries of Manitoba gets enlarged
- 1898, extension of Northern limit of Quebec
- 1899, extension of Western and Northern boundary off Ontario
- 1905, creation of Alberta, and Saskatchewan
- 1912, redefines boundaries of Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec (present position)
- 1927, boundary between Quebec and Labrador
- 1999, creation of Nunavut
Centralist / Decentralist Faultline
- The 4 regional challenge to Canadas national unity are:
1. Canadian regions are separated from each other by great distances, making trade and
commerce between those regions more difficult
2. Regions compete with each other and provinces have trade barriers
3. Provinces compete over federal funding, since the division of political powers in the Canadian
constitution assigned costly services such as health, education, and social services to provinces,
and only the federal government has tax revenues large enough to pay for much of these
services
4. Geography encourages Canadian regions to fall into economic orbit of the US
Regional tensions
- Political solutions have attempted to overcome geography by creating transnational
transportation systems, by fostering an industrial core, and by ameliorating regional disparities
through equalization payments
- First challenge was to span the railway from the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific ocean
- The governments goals for the railway were:
o To link the west with the rest of Canada
o To settle the Canadian prairies
o To provide an export route for prairie grain
o To create a market in the west for eastern industries
- Centralists advocate a strong central government, national policies that exert a political
dominance over provinces, and a strong national economy
- Decentralists seek to strengthen the powers allocated to provinces