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Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

The First People - Old World hunters o Around 30000 years ago o Crossed a land bridge known as Beringia  around 15000 years ago, Beringia below sea level o Some archaeologists speculate that Old World hunters may have penetrated into the lands much earlier through migrating along the edge of the Cordillera ice sheet by island-hopping (however there is lack of evidence to prove this theory) - Paleo Indians  descendants of Old World hunters o First people of North America o Known for using fluted stone spearhead o With the extinction of big-animals such as woolly mammoth, they developed new techniques – such as extensive fish and plants to supplement diet o Algonquians are direct descendants of Paleo-Indians - Indians o Climate differences required Indians to adapt their agricultural system accordingly o Indians in eastern US planted corn, beans, and squash (known as ‘the Three Sisters) o Athapaskans are direct descendants of Indians - Arctic migration o Was settled much later than the forested lands of the Subarctic o 2 develops were necessary in order people to inhabit in the artic 1. Melting of the ice sheets that covered Arctic Canada 2. The emergence of a hunting technique that would enable people to live in an Arctic environment o The Thule people, developed a sophisticated sea-hunting culture  ancestors of Inuits, hunted bowhead whale, walrus seals, and caribou o Initial contact o At first contact, there were many as 500,000 aboriginals….. By 1871, only 122,700 o European settlers spread new diseases to the aboriginals (eg. Huronia; the biggest tribe) o John Cabot is the first European explorer to land in Canada - Culture regions o Seven aboriginal culture regions: 1. Eastern woodlands: Iroquois and Huron 2. Eastern subarctic: Cree occupied; developed snowshoes 3. Western subarctic: Athapaskans occupied 4. Arctic: Inuits occupied 5. Plains 6. Plateau 7. Northwest coast: Indians harvest rich marine life The Second People - Quebec city, founded in 1608 by Samuel de Chaplain was the first permanent settlement in Canda - First large wave of British immigrants are loyalist refugees from the US  Supported American War of Independece (1775 - 1783) - Second large wave of immigrants from the British Isle (1790 – 1860)  Almost a million people -> due to deteriorating economic conditions in Great Britain - Canada began as a collection of 4 small British colonies: Upper and lower Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia  By 1867, 92% of Canadian population was either French or English  In English Canda, the notion of equal provinces grew out of the following factors: o The nature of Confederation was such that provincial powers were shared equally o The British formed the majority of the population in ¾ provinces, thereby dominating political affairs o The British, while a minority in Québec, were the dominant business group - English speaking mixture of English, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh The Third People - Completion of Canadian Pacific Railyway in 1885 - Ottawa obtained the vast land of Hudson’s Bay Company in 1970 - There were two key advantages in encouraging settlement 1. The threat of American settlers moving into the Canadian west and annexing these lands would be diminished 2. The creation of a grain economy would provide freight for the CPR, thereby helping turn in into a viable operation - Clifford Sifton launched aggressive advertising campaign to lure people to settle in western Canada - From 1901 to 1921, Western Canada’s population increased from 400,000 to 2 million The Territorial Evolution of Canada - British North America Act on July 1, 1867  uniting New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Upper & Lower(Ontario & Quebec) Canada - In 1870, the Deed of Surrender transferred Rupert’s Land and North-Western Territory to the federal government  province of Manitoba is established - In 1871, BC joins confederation - In 1873, PEI joins Canada - In 1905, Alberta and Saskatchewan are created - In 1949, Newfoundland joins Canada National Boundaries - Southern boundaries of New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario were formed when the British and US signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783 - The last major territorial dispute between Britain and US took over the Oregon Territory Internal Boundaries - In 1881, boundaries of Manitoba gets enlarged - 1898, extension of Northern limit of Quebec - 1899, extension of Western and Northern boundary off Ontario - 1905, creation of Alberta, and Saskatchewan - 1912, redefines boundaries of Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec (present position) - 1927, boundary between Quebec and Labrador - 1999, creation of Nunavut Centralist / Decentralist Faultline - The 4 regional challenge to Canada’s national unity are: 1. Canadian regions are separated from each other by great distances, making trade and commerce between those regions more difficult 2. Regions compete with each other and provinces have trade barriers 3. Provinces compete over federal funding, since the division of political powers in the Canadian constitution assigned costly services such as health, education, and social services to provinces, and only the federal government has tax revenues large enough to pay for much of these services 4. Geography encourages Canadian regions to fall into economic orbit of the US Regional tensions - Political solutions have attempted to overcome geography by creating transnational transportation systems, by fostering an industrial core, and by ameliorating regional disparities through equalization payments - First challenge was to span the railway from the Atlantic ocean to the Pacific ocean - The government’s goals for the railway were: o To link the west with the rest of Canada o To settle the Canadian prairies o To provide an export route for prairie grain o To create a market in the west for eastern industries - Centralists advocate a strong central government, national policies that exert a political dominance over provinces, and a strong national economy - Decentralists seek to strengthen the powers allocated to provinces The National Policy and Regional Tensions - The National Policy protected Canada’s manufacturing industries from foreign goods by means of high tariffs - For the heartland (Montreal and Toronto), this was a big advantage - For the hinterland, it meant ‘selling low’ and ‘buying high’  benefit for Central Canada at the expense of the rest of the country Western Alienation - For Alberta, the fear is that Ottawa will ‘steal’ their oils for power in Central Canada
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