Geo 2010 Ch 5.docx

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Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

Chapter 5: Ontario Introduction  Ontario’s prominent position within Canada and North America has been shaken by the economic downturn in 2008  Manufacturing—especially automobile industry has been affected hard  But Ontario remains the heartland of Canada’s manufacturing, serving a dominant role in the financial industry, and cultural centre for English speaking Canada  Two key components of its economy—forestry and manufacturing—are stalled in the old economy and they need two things o Fresh directions and investment to get back on the economic highway o Recovery of the US economy and the resumption of high levels of exports to the US Ontario within Canada st  The first decade of the 21 century—jolt on forestry and manufacturing industries  Collapse of two of its principal automobile manufacturers—Chrysler and General Motors o Massive layoff  Ontario contributed 39% of Canada’s gross domestic product (GDP) o An estimate of the total values of all materials, food, goods and services produced by a country or province in a particular year o In 2008, dropped to 37% o In the same year, 18,000 migrated to other provinces o Fell well below the national average in population growth o Only the inflow of international migrants has allowed Ontario to have a positive population growth rate  Strong Man of Confederation o Ontario was caught in a Canada-wide decline in manufacturing and forestry o Sudden and unexpected global economic collapse put a serious dent in Ontario’s economic performance—especially in automobile manufacturing and parts industries o The days of an “open border” are gone, making cross border manufacturing more costly and less attractive for locating new plants in Ontario o The western provinces have outpaced the economic and population growth in Ontario  Western Canada and B.C. have increased their share of national GDP by becoming the leading choices of destination by interprovincial migration  Buy America: In an effort to stimulate the US economy, Washington introduced the “buy America” provision, meaning for its economic stimulus package, priority is given to the US iron, steel, and other manufactured goods for use in public works and building projects supported with taxpayer recovery money o Left Ontario’s manufacturers unable to participate in the massive US stimulus spending program of 2009-2010  Dutch Disease: a theory describing the apparent relationship within a country between its expanding energy resource sector and subsequent decline in the manufacturing sector o 1997 the term first appeared in the Economist to describe the phenomenon of a declining manufacturing sector in the Netherlands—was enjoying increased revenues from the exports of its natural gas but also see its exchange rate with other countries increasing o in 2002, Canadian dollar was valued at 64 cents on the US dollar  In the past, Ontario benefited greatly from trade agreements with US (Auto Pact, NAFTA)  How to recover: o Downsized all of its automobile sector o Ontario still remains to be the leading manufacturing area in Canada  Historically, four natural resources—agriculture, forests, minerals and water have spurred Ontario’s economic development, processing of these products created a strong industrial base, which accounts for Ontario’s rapid population growth o Great lakes provided low cost water transportation o Niagara falls provided low cost hydroelectric power  Today, Ontario faces 3 challenges: o Energy  Ontario requires more energy and the cost of energy has risen rapidly o Manufacturing Sector  Coping with fierce competition in the Canadian market but also from other countries (where labor costs are lower) o The Forest Industry  Affects primarily Northern Ontario  For the past 10 years—only bad times  13 million people—largest population of the six regions o Sends more representatives to the House of Commons o Arts: Toronto Symphony Orchestra, the National Ballet, etc o Ontario is interested in having Ottawa pursue trade policies with the United States that support its industrial base, facilitate the ease of border crossings for goods and promote the well being of its manufacturing industry—especially the automotive o Regardless, remains as Canada’s industrial region for the foreseeable future  Net Interprovincial Migration: annual estimates of net migration by provinces and territories determined by the number of people arriving and leaving each province and territory as permanent residents; based on Child Tax Benefit data and income tax records o Strongly favors western Canada and BC over Ontario o They indicate continuation of the shift of economic and demographic power westward due more to the relatively weaker demographic and economic performances of Quebec and Atlantic Canada Ontario’s Physical Geography  Ontario is larger than most countries  Extending over Ontario are three of Canada’s physiographic regions: o Great Lakes St. Lawrence Lowlands o Canadian Shield o Hudson Bay Lowland  Three climatic zones o Arctic o Subarctic o Great Lakes St. Lawrence  The central location within Canada and its close proximity to the industrial heartland of the US have facilitated Ontario’s economic development o Due to this reason, Ontario is divided into two subcategories  Northern  Resource hinterland  Climate, soils and physiographic combine to the agriculture in northern Ontario  Canadian shield has relatively low elevations, limiting the opportunity for hydroelectric power developments o Sub-regions does have vast forests, superb scenery and extensive mineral wealth  Hudson Bay Lowland consists of a poorly drained plain associated with muskeg and permafrost o Few opportunities for resource development exist and remains the area for hunting and trapping: Cree Indians  Limited economically to Canadian Shield almost entirely and its development dependent on forestry, mining and tourism  Southern  Epitome of an agricultural-industrial core  Has Canada’s longest growing season  The greatest amounts of precipitation occur in the lee of the Great Lakes, where winter snowfall is particularly heavy  Southern Ontario is the most favored physical area in Canada  12 million, 93% of province’s population reside in Southern Ontario  Slightly tilted sedimentary rocks  Except for Niagara Escarpment, little relief topography  Mixed forest vegetation flourished in temperate continental climate  Most productive agriculture lands in Canada Climate and Agriculture  Southern Ontario’s climate is dominated by its long, warm summer that extends from May to September  Tropical air masses that originate in the Gulf of Mexico extend over this area resulting in hot and humid weather  Winter takes hold 3-4 months from mid-November to March when occasional invasions of arctic masses bring exceptionally cold weather (cold sunny days and frigid nights)  Southern Ontario has over half of the highest quality agricultural land (class 1) in Canada o $7 billion of agricultural products each year  Grain farming and cattle ranching dominate in Western Canada, while much more diversified use of agricultural land prevails in southern Ontario o Corn, barley and winter whe
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