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Final Exam Review.docx

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Western University
Geography 2011A/B
Wendy Dickinson

Final Exam Review Module 1 Physiographic Regions of Ontario: Canadian Shield (northwestern and central)  Rocks, lakes and forests  Middle portion of the province  Laurentian Plateau Interior Plains Hudson Bay Lowlands (extreme north and northeast)  Swampy and sparsely forested  Third Largest wetland in the World  25% of the land mass in Ontario  Population very sparse Great Lakes Lowland - Saint Lawrence Valley (South)  Gently rolling hills due to previous glaciers  Agriculture and urban development dominates this landscape  Soil and climate is perfect for agriculture – 52% of Canada’s prime farming  Dominant natural feature is the Niagara Escarpment Great Lakes and Characteristics of the Watershed Great Lakes  A Great Lake is ANY lake over 500 square km  Approximately 250 other Great Lakes world wide  1/3 of all great lakes are in Canada  Contains about 23000 km ^3  Covers an area of 244000 Km2  Largest system of fresh water on earth th  18% of worlds fresh water supply (1/5 )  6850 miles of shoreline in Ontario and Quebec, 5370 in 8 US States – overall 12,100  Outflows less than 1% per year Lake Superior rd  Worlds largest fresh water lakes by area, 3 largest by volume  Largest, deepest and coldest  10% of the worlds fresh water  191 retention time in years Lake Michigan  Second largest great lake by volume  Only lake entirely in the US  Longer retention time (99 years) Lake Huron  Includes Georgian Bay – largest bay on the Great Lakes rd nd  3 largest by volume and 2 by volume  30,000 islands  Includes manitoulin island  Heavy recreational use and productive fisheries Lake Erie  Smallest of the Great Lakes in volume  Exposed to the greatest effects from urbanization and agriculture  Intensively farmed  17 metropolitan areas with large populations  Home to point Pelee national park  Shallowest lake – approx. 19 meters – warms rapidly in the summer and freezes in the winter  Shortest retention time = 2.6 years Lake Ontario  Smaller than lake Erie In area, larger in volume  Much deeper than Lake Erie  Bounded by Niagara Falls on the west and thousand islands on the east  Industrial areas – Hamilton, Toronto on the north shore Watershed  764,051 square kilometers Role of Glaciation of formation of Ontario and the Great Lakes  Great lakes were found north of 40 degree latitude  In areas of heavily glaciated during the Great Ice Age  2 million years there has been period of glaciation Wisconsin Period  100000 years ago – covered the Great lakes region under thick expanding glaciers (ice sheets)  Glaciers withdrew 12000-15000 years ago  As they withdrew, they released vast quantities of melt water which created the southern Ontario landscape  The lakes were formed by melt water  99% of the waters of the great Lakes are thought to be to be of glacial origin Evolution of the great Lakes  Changing started 14000 years ago  Ever changing shape of the lakes is due to: o Retreat of glaciers – forming new shorelines o Topography surrounding the lakes o Gradual tilting of the earths crust o Climate change Key uses of the Great Lakes  We drink it, bathe and use it to prepare food  Dig wells to tap into  Flush our waste into it  Build reservoirs to contain it  Build channels, aqueducts and pipelines to carry it  Erect bridges over it  Use it for agricultural and industrial developments  Focused for recreation – swim, sail and relax on the shore line Module 2 Major Types of Water Pollution and their sources Non- Persistent Vs. Persistent water pollution Non-persistent: environmental damage can be reversible – can be broken down by natural bacteria into simple, non- polluting substances Examples: Domestic sewage, fertilizer and some industrial waste Persistent: degrades slowly or cannot be broken down at all, remains in the environment for years, damage is irreversible or reparable over decades/centuries Examples: pesticides, petroleum and petroleum products, PCBs, Dioxins, Polyatomic hydrocarbons, radioactive minerals and metals Physical Pollutants- bacteria, viruses and parasites, other living organisms may be introduced or occur natural by competition in the food chain or depleting nutrients vital for the survival of the harmful life – Example: oxygen depletion Chemical Pollutants- industrial sources, releasing heavy metals, salt runoff Biological Pollutants- sediment and heat, algae – caused by climate Pathways of Pollution: how the pollutants enter the water system Indirect/Direct pathways of pollution Indirect: Atmospheric deposition- smoke stacks, chimneys, pesticide spray and car exhaust Contaminated sediments-polluted sediments can be stirred and re-suspended by dredging, navigation and wind and wave action, bio accumulation Ground water movement –water passing though the ground and picks up dissolved materials Surface runoff- any pollutant on the land can be picked up by rain or snowmelt and runoff into rivers, urban and agricultural sources contribute toxic substances such as salt and asbestos Direct: Point sources – end pipe sources, sewage treatment plant pipes, pulp and paper discharges, industrial effluent pipes Concerns and difficulties associated with each type and sources of Pollution Non-Persistent Pollutants Humans are at risk of contracting bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases Can get it from drinking contaminated water Risks with direct body contact with contaminated water In developing countries – 80% of diseases are water-related Persistent Pollutants Problem since the 40s Can be acutely toxic in small amounts Can be injurious through long-term exposure in minute concentrations Potentially dangerous for humans Destructive to aquatic ecosystems Some fish species have tumors and lesions Reproductive capacities in some fish and birds are decreased Populations of fish-consuming birds and mammals have declined *Big concern with regard to the consumption of fish because they bio accumulate in the tissues of predator species – therefore humans consume large amounts of the toxins by eating fish lower down in the food chain Historical and Current State of the environment in the Great Lakes Lake Erie  1960s – thick green algae clogged beaches, fish carcasses washed ashore, lake Erie named “Dead”  Public concern= New pollution laws – The great Lakes Water Quality Agreement  Phosphorus and nitrogen levels were greatly reduced and the problem decreased over time – great success Lake Erie – TODAY  New “dead zone” in lake Erie – bacteria and decomposing organisms  Pollution did not disappear – changed from non-persistent to persistent  Invasive species including zebra muscles are taking over – uncontrollable State of the Great lakes  Overall loadings of pollutants are increasing again  The level of toxicity has leveled off since the 1970s  End-of-pipe discharges are increasing  Non-point sources are being regulated – but with little information  Pollution is rising despite cleanup effort  Pollutants increased 21% between 1998 -2002 Issues related to water levels and pressures for diversion of water from the Lakes Natural Factors: Short term changes: due to wind or ice jams Seasonal changes: lower in the fall and early winter, higher in the summer Long term Changes: due to precipitation changes Human Factors: Dredging – making channels deeper Diversions- moving water around Using water and not returning it Controlling the flow with dams and locks Low levels are recently being reported - Water scarcity in North America - With changing climate, the rate of evaporation is expected to increase dramatically especially in winter Module 3 Key organizations, treaties and agreements respecting the management of the Great Lakes The International Join Commission (IJC) - Independent commission with 6 members - Established the 1909 boundary waters treaty- to not pollute the boundary waters on either side - Assists government in finding solutions to problems with boundary water - Decisions for dams and regulate their operations - Main duty is to investigate water pollution - Two Boards: o Water Quality board – responsible for advising and evaluating progress being made in implementation of the agreement o Science Advisory Board – guidance, support and evaluation and address specific problems in the great lakes The Great Lakes Fishery Commission - 1955 establishment – control the lamprey - 1970s – 90% of lamprey was killed off with chemicals The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) - Reduce phosphorus in lakes - Research the great lakes on problems – find solutions for the future - Surveillance and monitoring of the lakes - Focused on non-persistent pollutants - New agreement followed 1978 to virtually eliminate all of these contaminates The NEW Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1978) - Achieve common water quality problems – improve pollution control - Set targets for phosphorus concentrations - Remedial action plans, geographic areas of concern and Lakewide management plans for critical pollutants National Institutional Arrangements for Great Lakes Management - 1988 - Canadian environmental protection act (COPA) – provide framework for controlling toxic substances The Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 - 1905- international waterways commission was created to advise about levels, lows - Treaty signed to resolve disputes over use of water resources that cross international boarders - 1912- water pollution was main concern - 1919- new treaty to control pollution - 1950s- eutrophication of the lakes = big concern due to excessive phosphorus - This cause the signing of the first great lakes water quality agreement in 1972 A great Lakes Water Agreement for the 21 Centuryt - Installed to ensure the US and Canada were both taking action to control pollution - Key priorities are to o Combat invasive species o Clean up areas of concern o Improve quality of impaired watersheds Theory and Application of the Ecosystem Approach Ecosystem Approach Focuses on localized pollution – management of separate components of the ecosystem in isolation Framework for decision-making: cooperation and devise integrated strategies - 3 characteristics o Systemic o Geographically comprehensive o Includes humans 1. Systemic – broad view – interaction of physical, chemical and biological components - Interdependence of the life in the lakes and the chemical/physical characteristics of water - Covers entire system of land, air and water - Biological indicators to monitor water quality - Framework for decision making to cooperate in devising integrative strategies of research 2. Geographically Comprehensive - Covers importance of atmospheric inputs of pollutants and the effects of land uses on water quality 3. Inclusion of Humans - Important factor of the system - Social- economic, technical and political variables affect how humans use natural resources - Culture and lifestyles and attitudes must be considered in an ecosystem approach Remedial Action Plan Program and Progress to Date in the Areas of Concern “To restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes basin ecosystem” Areas of Concern: Where ecosystem deterioration is very prominent – REMEDIAL ACTION PLANS are developed to clean these areas of concern. RAPs- restoration of beneficial uses within the AOCS - Implemented by the GLWQA – adopts ecosystem approach to restoration and protection IJCs – Great Lakes Water Quality Board identified 42 Areas of Concern around the Great Lakes 26 in the US, 10 in Canada and 5 are binational waterways GLWQA uses the RAPS to restore and protect 14 beneficial uses in AOCS - Restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption - Tainting of fish and wildlife flavor - Degradation of fish and wildlife populations - Fish tumors - Bird and animal deformities or reproduction problems - Detrition of benthos - Restrictions on dredging actives - Eutrophication or undesirable algae - Restrictions on drinking water consumption/taste/odor - Beach closings - Added costs to agriculture or industry - Detrition of phytoplankton and zooplankton - Loss of fish and wildlife habits We must 1. Identify AOCS 2. Starts RAPS 3. Understand the types of pollution, sources and extent of damage 4. Identify stakeholders and those responsible for damage and clean up 5. Determine how to clean up problem 6. Implement the remedial plans 7. Monitor and report 8. Get the money and political will do 1-7 Progress to Date: RAPS over 25 years Delisted from the Areas of Concern: Collingwood (1994), Severn Sound (2003), Oswego River (2006), Wheatley Harbor (2010) and Presque Ile Bay (2013) In recovery: Spanish Harbor Arrangements for the Management of the Great Lakes Great Lakes Blueprint 1. Improve governance 2. Enable effective public participation 3. Connect water quality and quantity 4. Practice ecosystem-based stewardship 5. Eliminate pollution 6. Upgrade sewage infrastructure 7. Halt aquatic invasive species 8. Protect water levels and flows Future progress predictions - Ecosystem has shown signs of recovery – pollution still main concern - Better understanding of the living resources and habitats of the great lakes is needed - Wetlands, forests and shorelines have to be more STRICT and protected/rehabilitated - Rehab of areas and prevention of further damage are being recognized as the best way to promote good health and protect and preserve the living resources and habitats of the Great Lake Module 4 Describe Ontario’s Population: whom we are, where we live and current/historical/future population growth due to immigration Who we are: most populous province: 38% of Canada resides in Ontario - Most ethically and culturally diverse in Canada - Reported more than 20 languages in Ontario - Population growth in Ontario is primarily from immigration – not natural births - Will continue to be more and more culturally diverse Where we live - Increasing urban population – 85.1% of Ontarians live in urban areas - Large portion reside in the Golden Horseshoe, GTA - 1/3 of the Ontario population in the GTA and accounted for 39% of provincial growth - Southwestern Ontario is predicted to grow – into GTA and horseshoe - The north and southeast projected to grow MUCH slower than the GTA/Horseshoes
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