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1st exam lecture notes

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Western University
Geography 2011A/B
Wendy Dickinson

Geography of Ontario and the Great Lakes – Exam 1- PART ONE GEOGRAPHY OF ONTARIO TEST ONE – Feb. 4, 2014  Physical Geography of Ontario  Population and Settlement Patterns  Economic Development and Future Trends  Ontario as Heartland and Region-State - Ontario is viewed as bland to ontarians - Ontario economy is completely integrated with American economy o Not the other way around though Coat of arms - Green shield with maple leaves with the Banner of St. George – England flag o Green and gold colours o Above the shield is a bear, with a moose and a deer supporting the shield; all representing the rich animal life of the province o Our motto - "Loyal She Began, Loyal She Remains Flag - The red ensign - Union jack and coat of arms of province Physical Geography - Pop is 13,000,000 - 2 largest province o Quebec is larger - Ontario comes from Iroquois word - Toronto comes from native word “tarantou” = meeting place - Ontario lies in 2 Natural regions 1. Canadian shield (laurentian plateau) a. Very high elevation b. Made up of rocks, lakes, and forest i. Agriculture is poor ii. Forest consists of Jack Pine, Balsam Fir, White and Black Spruce however trees do not grow in north due to cold and south due to cities 2. Interior plains and lowlands a. Hudson bay plains (interior plains) b. Lowlands (Great lakes – st.lawrence - We live in mixwood lowlands - Southern ont = deciduous forest o Followed by mixed forest and boreal forest and boreal barrens and tundra -------- - Hudson bay lowlands is 3 largest wetland in the world  - Great lakes lowland anfd st. Lawrence lowland are divided by an arm of the Canadian shield called the Frontenac axis o Dominant feature of great lakes lowland is Niagara escarpment - Great lakes lowland o Flat landscape o Best agricultural class (class 1) o Niagara fruit belt o Home to majority of ontarians - Climate o Mostly humid continental o Also can be maritime  Lakes AREN’T maritime o 3 major air sources  cold, dry, polar air from north  Pacific polar air passing over the prairies  warm, moist, subtropical air from Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico o precipitation  general trend – increase from northwest to southeast Land Use and Urban Sprawl - Sprawl = the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over more and more rural land at the periphery of an urban area o Process by which agricltural land gets converted to an urban use o Rarely are urban lands turned back into green space o Land is finite - Characteristics of sprawl o Scattering of shops o Inadequate public transportation o Pedestrian unfriendly streets o Parking lots that push buildings back far from each other o High volumes of traffic  Golden horshoe growing by 115,000 people per year - Low density = high cost (NOT COST EFFECTIVE) o Growth does not pay for growth o Causes illnesses (pollution + public health)  Air pollution (costs Ontario over 1 billion/ year) o Lose time (traffic jams and time lost driving) o Traffic accidents o Noise o Economic costs of climate change – pollution  Burning fossil fuels = GHG emissions • Impacts: permafrost thaw + accelerated coastal erosion + increasing severity of storms and droughts  Also pavement does not absorb rain - runs water off into rivers which increases rising water level = flooding • Storm sewers collect rain and other toxic chemicals and deposit them in lakes and rivers o Requires energy  Consequently suburbs will become more expensive  Sprawl requires abundant and cheap energy o Wildlife  Destroys wildlife  Expansion into wetlands – which hold water for us o Aesthetics and quality of Life  Social loss – isolation and lack of connectivity/engagement • Social loss = we all live in the same house and are very homogeneous as a result (same income, same lifestyle) • If you don’t fit in the homogeneous group then you don’t have an opportunity to live there  Those that can’t drive are left behind  Absence of a sense of place • Have joy from where you live - Household costs of sprawls o Cheaper land is further from city center (savings) o Increased property taxes due to maintenance of infrastructure o Extra time spent driving and transportation costs - Smart Growth (Smartgrowth suggests we should integrate different types of people with different incomes in different stages of the life cycle into one neighborhood) o Preserve greenspace o Integrate land use and transportation planning o Make full use of existing urban land o Provide variety of transportation o Compact building o Communities with strong sense of place o Eliminate homogeneous groups - Greenbelt is an area restricted for urban development o Sometimes it leapfrogs greenbelt o No more room for development in Oakville Social Geography of Ontario - 60 – 120,000 people lived here pre settlement - Indigenous were not homogeneous - European Settlers o 1500s: Passage to the Orient? o 1600s: Fur trade begins  French and English struggle for domination o 1759: British vs. French showdown o 1763: Treaty of Paris o 1775: American Revolution o 1779: English, Scottish & Irish immigrants o 1787: US Ordinance develop the Lakes o 1791: Upper Canada defined  population 15,000 o 1812: Last military challenge for the Lakes  population of Upper Canada about 90,000 o 1867: Confederation  Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick form a federal union  Dominion of Canada - Industrial activity takes place in the south using resources from the north - Current pop = 13,210,00 o 38.8 % of canada’s pop o Followed by quebec then BC - Official language = English o English as first language is decreasing o Second is francophones o Visible minorities are 19.1% of pop - Immigration is driven by push and pull factors - # of immigrants into Canada is being reduced o Immigration is driven by push and pull factors  Pull factor is resource sector of Canada - Natural increase = more births vs deaths o Expect decrease of natural increase in future - Dependency ratio o Ratio of children under 15 and adults over 65 and up who can’t contribute to society - Greater golden horsehoe o most populous and the most heavily urbanized region in Canada. o home to 8.1 million people, two-thirds of Ontarians and one-quarter of all Canadians o growth rate of 8.4% o 84% of Ontario's population increase and 39% of the total national increase - Brampton is the largest Ontario CSD o While Milton is the fastest growing - Majority of people are 45-50 years old - Ontario has the greatest growing aboriginal rate o But Nunavut has the largest share of aboriginal people !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!NEED MORE NOTES FOR THIS SLIDE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Economic Geography LEVELS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY - Primary: extraction of raw materials - Secondary: conversion into product - Tertiary: provision of services - Quaternary: collection, processing, and distribution of information o Doesn’t really matter the difference between tertiary and quaternary o Tertiary and quaternary is by far the largest and fastest growing Primary economic Activity AGRICULTURE - Historical Development: o Immigrants (main reason why people moved here) o Canals for export o local consumption increased as population grew - Current Ontario: o Southern Ontario (majority of agricultural activity is here)  Canadian shield has thin soil which is only good for boreal forest o Ontario leads Canada in total $ value of farm produce  Beat all other provinces o 1/4 of Canada’s farms (most in Canada)  # of farms is declining overall o 8.5 million acres of cropland in Ontario presently - Risk of economic disaster o Diseases in animals such as mad cow - Subsidies and tariffs - Environmental Change o Climate changes limits farming activity o Ex. Tobacco market is declining – used to produce a lot of it - Over 200 commodities (VERY DIVERSE) - More diverse than most parts of the world o More diverse = more resilient your economy is o If one commodity suffers then you still have others to rely on AGRICULTURE - Changes in landscape/environment o Rapid and large-scale clearing of land o Loss of soil from land into rivers o Altered the flow of rivers o Fish habitats destroyed o Flood plains o Pollution COMMERCIAL FISHERIES – can’t really brag about anymore – selling da fish - Began about 1820 - Expanded 20% per year - Largest harvests in 1889 and 1899 - Golden days over by late 1950s - Province sets annual quotas and issues licences - approximately 80 per cent of the value resides with the Lake Erie fishery (yellow perch and walleye) o no commercial fishing on south side of lake Erie (American side) they only use it for sport fishing FORESTRY - Historical Development: o Early logging to clear land (not to sell logs but as people moved here they needed the logs) o 1830s - commercial logging began o Paper-making began slowly, now world leaders o Loss of resource  A lot of work now to replant trees o Water and land pollution  From secondary processes like making paper - Current Ontario: o 80% of Ontario’s area is forest (Ontario has app
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