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Notes from Readings for (Final) In Class Assignment Geography 2011.docx

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Geography 2011A/B
Wendy Dickinson

Notes from Readings for In Class Assignment Northern Perceptions Pg153162For aboriginal people the north is their homeland where comprehensive land claims provide them with more control over their destiny within CanadaPlace where global warming is predicted to have a greater impact than elsewhere in Canada o Possible consequence could lead to summer shipping through the Northwest Passage thus providing a shorter route between Asia and Europe Canadians perceive the North as eithero A resource frontiero Aboriginal homeland While the vision of the frontier building southernlike communities and developing a resource economy to serve the needs of N Americans dominates the overall direction of northern development the homeland theme surfaces in areas where Native people comprise the majority of the population where they hold rights to the land and there they established a selfgovernment Fundamental Question Will the North of tomorrow replicate the course of development found in southern Canada or will it break away from that template Already there are signs of a different courseo Ex Nunavut represents political divergence from the other territories and provinces and it represents an Inuit response to the northern homeland questiono Ex Formation of the Aboriginal Pipeline Group which can acquire a onethird ownership in the proposed 78 Billion Mackenzie Valley natural gas pipeline reflecting both a desire on the part of Northern Aboriginal people to participate in resource development and recognition by corporate Canada that Aboriginal participation is necessary for business in the North Development is concerned with economic social and political factors shaping society It follows that development in the Canadian North occurs within the market economy and is supported by the Canadian political system th Until late 20 century the place of Aboriginal peoples within Canadian version of development was often ignored or dismissed Since the legal validation of aboriginal rights the establishment of modern land claim negotiation processes and the participation of Aboriginal groups in the market economy mark the necessary inclusion of Aboriginal peoples within the Western development process In this text these three images of the Northas a northern Eldorado as a cold environment and as a homelandare taken into account but the geographic extent of the North is defined as consisting of two biomes the Arctic and the Subarctic These biomes extend over a cast areanearly 80 of Canadathat includes the three territories and reaches into the territories of seven provinces The southern boundary of the North is marked by the places where the boreal or northern coniferous forest of the Subarctic gives way to other natural vegetation zones such as the grasslands of the Canadian Prairies The Norths southern edge corresponds to the southern limit of permafrost indicating the interrelationship of climate natural vegetation and permafrost The Arctic exists in the three territories and in four of the seven provinces Quebec Newfoundland and Labrador Ontario and Manitoba The Subarctic occurs in all seven provinces with a northern landscape BC Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Ontario Quebec Newfoundland and Labrador and two territories Northwest territories and Yukon The North has the coldest environment in Canada with permafrostpermanently frozen ground abounding and the polar ice pack covering much of the Arctic Ocean Second The North is by far the largest region in Canada Accounts for 76 of Canadas geographic area Less than 15million people fewer than 5 of Canadas population lives in the North Climate changemore noticeable in the form of higher summer temperaturesis taking place more rapidly in the North than in other regions of Canada Other features are unique to the North including the sense of isolation its political structure and cultural dualism Sense of Isolation For Aboriginal northerners the North is their home This psychological barrier often affects the lives of its newly arrived residents who live in communities where air transportation represents the only means of reaching Southern Canada This sense of isolation has a negative effect on recruiting skilled workers and professional people and accounts for the high job turnover and outmigration Companies and govts often employ incentives to attract workers to live in remote centerso Northerners for example receive a special income tax deduction Northern Residents Deductionfor living in the North but this deduction varies by tax regiono In the more Northerly less accessible tax region the deduction is pegged at 100 while in the less northerly somewhat more accessible tax region the deduction falls to 50 By reducing the amount of taxable income northerners are able to reduce their personal income tax increase there aftertax income A tax definition of the North is complicated by 2 factors
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