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Geography 2030A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Tuberculosis, Disability-Adjusted Life Year, Malnutrition

Course Code
GEOG 2030A/B
Study Guide

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Lecture 1 2014-10-26
Video Notes (Kingdoms of Africa West Africa)
16th century casts in bronze, artists had to make and fire clay mould
Did not believe primitive Africans could produce such good artefacts
Nigeria – Kingdom of Benin
Series of moats and walls
Evidence of vast network of trenches and walls, 4000 miles
Believed that souls and spirits existed in animals and earth
Political control in 40000 square miles
1897, 12,000 British soldiers attacked
Found art work in palace that were taken, sold
Benin warrior standing victorious on top of dying British in middle of square
History written by the artists
1914, palace was rebuilt to instil British monarchy
Kingdom exists in parallel with Nigerien state
Melted down copper bracelets brought by Portuguese traders, now use scrap metal
Many bronzes depict military victories
Some bronze pre dates Portuguese arrival
1000’s of years before Benin were other empires that have risen and fallen
Empire of Mali and City of Timbuktu
Power came because it was the hub of sub-Saharan trade routes

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Brought Islam as well as goods
Islam forbids them from creating objects of human form
Islam introduced writing, calligraphy
Source of bronze but not craftsmanship
800 AD
Large market and strategic trade position
All architectural features of building have meaning (children, wives, etc.)
Forbids representative images
Djenne Djeno
Ancient city, settled around 200 BC and inhabited till 14th century
Animus settlement
Artefacts found here show that it was the first major trading crossroads
Pottery used for the casting technology in Benin
Evidence of blacksmithing
Dogon Country
Iron smelting dated around 500 BC
Also work with wood carving (masks)
Vital for maintaining culture
Animals also have meaning and symbolism of animals
Leopard represents death, Snake represents protection
People of Tellum shows that craft was around long before Benin
Used pottery 8000 years before British and 2000 years before rest of the world, from times of earliest
recorded pottery
West Africa was way ahead of its time

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