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Geography World Rivers - Final Exam Review Notes

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Western University
Geography 2071F/G
Prof.Van De Weil

INTRODUCTION22 of all water is freshwater1 of freshwater is surface water 1 of all surface water is rivers 211010 years 23Amazon BA6144727km L6400km Discharge219000 msecAmazon20 of all river discharge GANGES4 CONGO4Congo BA3730474 L4700 Discharge41800Nile BA3254555 L6650 Discharge 5100Danube L49kmRhine1232 Rhine Mississippi BA3202230 L6275 Discharge 16200Jordan L251kmTigris 1900kmObBA 2972297L5410Discharge12800Ganges2510kmColorado2339kmParana BA2582672L3998Discharge25700Okavango1600kmYeniseyBA2554482L5539Discharge19600LenaBA2306772L4400Discharge17100NigerBA2261763L4167Discharge9570MackenzieBA1743058L4241Discharge10300DISCHARGE Amazon Gangesbrah YangtzeYangtzeBA1722155L6300Discharge31900AMAZON South America Big chunk of SA drains into Atlantic biggest drainage basin the 2world 7million km Longest river maybe the Nilelength of the Amazon is not stableMost of the river is at LOW elevationstarts5000m ends100m Countries Peru BoliviaVEnezuala Colombia Ecuadorand CBrazil Basin70 of basin in Brazil Tocantins Basin part of basin at mouth is BIG island Marajo Tocantin Basin goes south of the island Amazon goes north Madara is the MAIN basin and covers 20River drops from Andes QUICKLYcarries sediment When it goes to flatSediment area some of the sediment drops out Natural extension zone where sediment drops offRiver turns brown because of sediment that is picked up as it runs off from high in the mountainsWide rivers milky brown colour EROSION LRiver bank erosion adds sedimentsFlood plains deposit sediment elsewhere Medeira brings large amounts of sediment aka sediment DOUBLES when it hits the Madeira Most of the sediment comes from AndesMadeiraBlack Rivers Eg Rio NegroMore NorthWest DOESNT originate in Andes Carries partially decomposed organic matter More acidic than the water coming from AndesAs a result has different speciesRiver level is highest in JuneJulyClear Water Rivers low sediment and nutrient load More SouthEast Originate in Brazillian shieldNorthern Shieldwhen rivers meet you can get big mixing effects Rio NegroAmazon Takes about 10km before waters fully milk RioMadeira river level is LOWEST in junejulyfluctuations in river levelsgreatest fluctuations are in southwestern Brazillian rivers especially Madiera PurusJuruaMANAUS 1 million people living No bridges Unique to Amazon Ferries go across Ocean vessels can make it to Manaus 34 km wide Sometimes make it to Iquitos Low gradient for ships to be able to make it throughManausRioNegroby this time has 50 of flow that goes to OceanBY oceanriver is carrying 200000m of water to ocean PER SECONDMedaraNegrocarrying LARGE amounts of water 1514RainfallFLUCTUATIONS There is extremely high rainfall 10000 mmyear in its highest area drains into Amazonthen into Atlantic 2530 of rainfall makes it to AtlanticNHemisummerhigh flows in river June July August Flood season is JuneAugustDroughtJanAprilS Hemiwinter high flowsFeb March flood season is JanMay Wetdry cyclebig variationswater 1014myr Human ImpactsDAMS No dam along the Amazon because gradient is too low No dams on tributaries that come from Andes because there is a lot of sediment travelling with waterwould damage the damROADS Few roads through the Amazon Roads are NOT paved Bare soil becomes road Ferries go acrossRoadstransport for trucks carrying woodRain becomes problematic for roadstrucks2DEFORESTATION rates have increased substantially Every year 19km is cut from amazonOnce deforestedburn landuse for agricultureonce that dies then they use it for cattle farmsFIRES 500 firesyearHabit destructionwhen you burn it the regrowth is different from the original forest LOGGING Loggingbare soilerosionPasture50 of water runs over land causes erosionin water running over surface of landPrediction for 2020 Trees shade the river so there is not too much evaporation If the river is then exposed because of logging then there is HIGH RATES of evaporation of water Climate Change less rain in rainforest Highprobability of area in Brazil will have 20 reduction510 reduction in rainfall because of loggingnot due to climate changeWHY LOGGINGHardwood for exportCattle Large areas have been converted to pastures for cattleCattle importsexportslarge economic market for cattle in BrazilCrop land is burned and turned into agriculture SettlementsGold big resource in BrazilAmazon10 of total gold comes from Brazil 80 of Brazil gold comes from Amazon Most gold mining happens illegally clear forestdig must go thru a LOT of mud to find a little bit of goldGold miners use mercury general safe except when you boil itVapours combined with carbonateinorganic mercurytoxic they burn the mercury to make gold nuggets illness is high Gold Production per year Global400 ton Brazil3050ton Brazillian Amazon2440tonRelease of Hg into atmosphere through burning waste etc Global6001000ton Brazillian Amazon100200ton est 2040 est 80s90s200tonrelease of Hg into area varies with temperature of the airdependant on the Sun NO SUNlower uptake of Hg into atmosphere Mercury eventually rainsPOLLUTED RAIN Polluted rain falls on forests gets absorbed by trees so not much going to river system Polluted rain falls on pastures50 Hg makes it to riverMore sediment in rivermore HG This has implications for eating fish injesting mercuryTransfers to humans thru breastfeeding as wellGold mining affects people downstream shown in hair mercurcy conc Logginggoldmininghealth effects
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