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Geo Quiz 6-first 2 population readings.docx

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Western University
Geography 2143A/B
Milford Green

The Demographic Transition-More or Less -population is supposed to level out at a bit over 10 billion by the end of the century -2 reproductive strategies (according to circumstances) 1. r-selectionproduce a lot of offsprings but invest a little in them (high infant mortality) 2. k-selection have a few offsprings but nurture them. (produce more grandkids) -demographic transition is a shift from r-type to k-type behaviour -Sweden-Uppsala Birth Cohort-14000 Swedish ppl born between 1915-1929 -raw data: income, SES, how many children were born to the cohort and their descendents -r/k interpretation-rate of reproduction and the carrying capacity of the environment -privileges show up in succeeding generations but in a non-evolutionary way (reproduction) -explanation: -the psychology which encouraged k-type beh is not appropriate in modern circumstances -better hygiene, nutrition, and medicine, and free education, no harem-formation are all changed now-disadvantages of r-selected have disappeared Seven Brothers-An aversion to having daughters is leading to millions of missing girls -Sakina was dumped in Kotla, a village on the wheat plains south of Delhi -the man paid 5000 rupees ($100) to a dalal (a broker) -paro-female outsider in Haryana -she had 9 children-8 of them boys -the normal sex ratio for kids 0-6 is 952:1000 (girls:boys) -India: 945 (1991) 927 (2001) 914 (now) -fast growth, urbanisation, and increasing literacy rates have not affected this trend -the ratio is most distorted in the northern Gangetic Plain-such as Punjab -Haryana (direst)-830:1000 -worsening sex ratios in all but 8/35 Indian states and territories -revealing the sex of the fetus is illegal but hard to enforce and ppl do it for as little as 600 rupees -Implications: -as Indians are becoming richer, dowries are spreading to places that weren’t’ practiced before (such as Kerala and Tamil Nadu) and they are becoming more lavish -encourages abuse, such as trafficking -increasing number of poor bachelors they are sometimes abused -Some positive points: -sex selection may slowly be turning around. It is worsening but slower. (1.9% to 1.5%) -sample surveys show a different pattern than the 10 year census (increasing ratio of girls to guys) but this might be misleading -worries -that the sex ratios will become as bad as China (833) Coal in the rich world-the mixed fortunes of fuel Why is the world’s most harmful fossil fuel being burned less in America and more in Europe? -coal provides 2/5 of the world’s electricity -in the past decade, the world’s electricity production doubled and 2/3 of the increase came from coal -at these rates, coal will vie with oil as the world’s largest source of primary energy within five years -in 2001, it was not much more than half as important as oil -main factor has been China (overtook America as the world’s biggest electricity producer) -China’s coal demand had tripled -China’s domestic coal industry produces more primary energy than Middle Eastern oil does -India -coal demand is growing at 6%/year -IEA believes that India could surpass America as the second largest coal consumer by 2017 -coal is falling from favour in America King no more -coal advantages-cheap and widely available -but bad for health and environment -America-coal is being burned less but not due to climate policy -Europe-they are a world leader on climate but they are using more coal -America -upended by shale gas (cheap-$2 per million British thermal units-Btus) -in 1988, coal provided 60% of America’s electricity -2002: 42% -2012: coal and gas were almost eq
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