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Geography Quiz 3.pdf

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Western University
Geography 2143A/B
Milford Green

Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 Geography of Business: Quiz 3 Tuesday October 8, 2013: 25 Multiple Choice Questions Production and Consumption ▯ 1 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 Lost Energy ▯ 2 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 ▯ 3 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 ▯ 4 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 - global demand for energy will increase by 36% between 2008 and 2035 - emerging economies will account for almost all of this increase (93%) - energy-demand growth in developed nations is expected to be modest in coming years and actually fall 2% overall from 2010 to 2040, thanks largely to efficiency improvements, Exxon predicts - but developing nations will see energy demand grow 57% through 2040, with demand for electricity expected to grow by 80% as the standard of living improves ▯ 5 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 ▯ 6 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 - the energy required to produce a unit of GDP is falling in most countries around the world * as countries industrialize, energy-intensive businesses make up a bigger share of the economy - peaks generally correlate to the high point of heavy industry, before lighter industry and higher value-added businesses (such as services) begin to replace old-fashioned smokestack manufacturers - this often coincides with gains in energy efficiency - China has overtaken the US to become the world’s biggest energy user - the US has over the past decade far outpaced China in using energy more efficiently * on a per capita basis, the US still uses far more energy than China and remains less efficient than Europe Faith Birol, the IEA’s chief economist, said: - in the 2000, the US consumed twice as much energy as China, now China consumes more than the US - he noted that the US had improved the efficiency with which it uses energy by 2.5 per cent annually during that time, while China managed only a 1.7 per cent annual improvement - Saudi Arabia, the world’s most important oil exporter, for the first time last year sold more oil to China than the US ▯ 7 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 - GDP and energy consumption are highly correlated ▯ 8 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 - in electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem off the same source of heat - wind and solar get the most taxpayer help for the least production ▯ 9 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 Electrical Generation UHV Lines -conventional transmission lines, which use alternating current, can carry up to 500 kilovolts of energy from power plants to substations for distribution -but they’re limited in how far they can transmit power, typically up to about 530 miles -they lose a significant amount of power-- about 7% of capacity-- in transit, requiring power plants to produce more electricity than is used ▯ 10 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 -Canada’s grid is roughly divided between eastern and western grids Canadian Grid ▯ 11 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 Canada ▯ 12 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 ▯ 13 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 ▯ 14 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 ▯ 15 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 -whether nuclear power can compete with other forms of power generation appears to depend on geography, and whether costs do come down as more reactors are built, as industry executives predict ▯ 16 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 -the transition is likely to take decades -with coal supplying two-thirds of the country’s electricity, China has resisted international treaties that would impose caps on its carbon emissions -but relying too much on coal takes a toll on the country’s growth as well -indeed, despite a surge in local coal prices in recent years, Beijing has held down power rates to fight inflation -as a result, many coal-fired plants now operate at a loss - there are currently 439 commercial nuclear reactors - estimated that by 2050 there will be over 1000 reactors ▯ 17 Jennifer Citrullo▯ 2143 ▯
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