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Definitions for final exam (optional exam).docx

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Western University
Geography 2143A/B
Milford Green

Population P1 Birth Control CDR: Crude Death Rate P2 Number of deaths per 1000 population in one year period Defined Benefit The eventual pension depends on a formula that takes P3 into account the level of pay and years of contribution Defined Contribution A certain level of contribution is agreed on and the money invested, with the eventual payout depending on the P4 return on that investment P5 Demographic Transition Malthus, 4 Stages P6 Density Eventually, lower fertility reduces the growth rate of labour Demographic Dividend force, while continuing improvements in old-age mortality P7 speed growth of the elderly population. The doubling time of a population is simply the number of Doubling Time years it would take for a population to double in size if the present rate of growth remained unchanged. For Canada: P8 87.5 years. P9 Emigration Fertility Reproductive performance rather than the mere capacity P10 to do so P11 Global Birth Rates P12 Immigration The action of living permanently in a foreign country British Scholar, Principle of Population--> High Birth rate, P13 Malthus falling death rate = growth Migration Process of permanently changing residence from one P14 geographic location to another P15 Mortality Deaths in a population Population 15-64 Dependency Ratio= Population <15 and >64/Population P16 15-64 X 100 Population Momentum Larger number of women because of past higher fertility P17 levels P18 Population Node Population over 64 Dependency Ratio= Population <15 and >64/Population P19 15-64 X 100 P20 Population Pyramid P21 RNI: Rate of Natural Increase RNI= Crude Birth Dates - Crude Death Rates P22 Rural Population P23 Urban Population P24 World Population Introduction & Globalization G1 Canadian Inward FDI G2 Competitive Advantage Core-Semi periphery-Periphery: Increased interaction between G3 Core- Periphery rich and poor countries is required only in the interest of improving standards of living in the world's poorer countries but also in the interest of maintaining the prosperity of the world's richer countries G4 FDI, Foreign Direct Investment by foreigners in wholly owned faculties that are Investment operated by the foreign owner of aTNC GDP: Gross Domestic Total market value of all final goods and services produced in G5 Product a country in a given year, Y=C+I+G+(X-M), a concept of income rather than value added Worldwide prices that make the world its economic system G6 Globalization and its society more uniform, more integrated, and more interdependent. Shrinking of the world G7 HQ of Global 500 G8 Income Y= Income, Income = household consumption+incestments+gov consumption+net trade G9 Industrialization G1 Access to real time information, creation of networks (the 0 Information Technology internet), giant databases (data mining), geomatics G1 Offshore Banking Bank located outside of the country of residence, typically tax 1 haven or provides financial and legal advantages G1 Portfolio Investment Passive investments in securities, no control exercised 2 (different from FDI) G1 Definition of core region- an agglomeration, of vertically 3 Spatial Concentration integrated industries and an associated service sector Systems of spatial interaction have two components: 1- Places G1 Spatial Interaction that serve as origins and destinations of flows, 2- The flows 4 themselves G1 Specialization 5 G1 1- Demand Abroad: export of a commodity from home country 6 Stage 1 to a new foreign market G1 7 Stage 4 4- Foreign production facilities export back to home country G1 Tax haven Countries the OECD don’t require to share bank information 8 with foreign tax authorities 4 Stages: 1- Demand Abroad: export of a commodity from home country to a new foreign market, 2- Establishment of TNC Evolution, production facilities abroad, exports of same item drop, 3- G1 Transnational Foreign production facilities now also service foreign markets 9 Corporations other than the first, 4- Foreign production facilities export back to home country. Extensions to this general pattern of TNC evolution when tied to a specific product --> called the product life cycle model G2 0 Toyota Motor 10th largest firm by revenue in 2012 G2 Trade 1 G2 Transfer Pricing Major advantage of TNCs, technique to shift profits to 2 countries with lower corporate taxation rates G2 3 Triad G2 4 Wal-Mart Countries C1 Alberta Bulk of tar sands found in the world, lowered oil prices put Suncor & Western Oil Sands at risk, $7 Billion Pipeline, Keystone XL (Alberta to Texas) C2 Arctic Brazil & US produces over 87% of world's ethanol,
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