Destination is an excuse to take the trip
One of the paradoxes of otherness is that in travel, each conceives(imagines) the other to be a
Travel is a state of mind. It has nothing to do with distance or exotic (foreigner). It is almost
entirely an inner experience.
The whole point of travel is discovery, and few experiences can match satisfaction of such an
extraordinary discovery near home.
Travel had to do with movement and truth: with trying everything, offering yourself to
experience and then reporting on it.
EVERY TRIP IS UNIQUE and has an historical dimension.
Travel is a vanishing act, consciously experimenting with space and time.
Travellers are essentially optimists.
Tourists always labour under a time constraint and are the unwilling victims of cost efficiency.
So they stay together, travel within a narrow compass and tend to stay put.
Tourists are contained, for benefits of both locals and themselves.
By being kept in one place, there is no risk and no interruption in flow of local life.
One can travel this world and see nothing.
To achieve understanding, it is necessary not to see many things
The organised mass tourists:
Low on adventurousness, anxious to maintain one’s own “environmental bubble”.
Guided through the destination having little contact with local culture or people.
The individual mass tourists:
Similar to the organised mass tourists, but more flexibility and scope for personal choice is
However, still organised by the tourism industry and the “environmental bubble” shield one
from the real experience
Organised independently and looking to get off the beaten track.
Comfortable accommodation and reliable transport are sought
“Environmental bubble” is abandoned on occasion.
All connections with the tourism industry are spurned (gone) and the trip attempts to get as
far from home and familiarity as possible. No fixed itinerary, lives with the local people, paying one’s way and immersing (담그다)
oneself in their culture.
Mass tourist is known as institutionalised tourism (Familiarity):
Dealt with routinely by the tourism industry.
Explorer and drifter is non-institutionalised tourism (Novelty):
Individual travel and shuts contact with the tourism industry.
Factors those shift demand for tourism:
Safety, security, politics, economics & seasonality.
The role of the host: welcoming & inviting.
What is it like to live in a tourist location after the tourists have gone?
When the season is over, what is left?
Levels of cultural penetration:
Stage A: previous level of cultural penetration, tourists
Stage B: staged authenticity, where tourists visit
Stage C: true cultural heritage, cultural curtain boundary exists.
The determinants and influences of carrying capacity:
The interaction between local and alien (foreign) factors, directed and governed by the
planning process (-> management of development -> technology) will determine the impacts.
These impacts are on society, culture, environment, economy, and tourists.
The value of carrying capacity soon becomes accepted and this level of acceptance
influences the local and alien factors at the top of the process and modifies tolerance levels
Do tourists and locals have the same perspective?
If tourist season demands one level of services, what happens to those services in off-season?
Should a country’s capital city be a showpiece?
What is necessary to improve host conduct and practices?
Consumer decision-making framework
Socio-economic influences: motivation
Reference group influences: personality & attitudes
Cultural influences: perception (awareness & recognition)
Family influence: learning
These four factors are considered when consumer makes decision.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Physiological: food, rest, activity
Safety: security, freedom from fear and anxiety Belonging and love: affection, giving, and receiving love
Esteem(respect): self-esteem and esteem for others
Self-actualisation: personal self-fulfillment
The Schmoll model
Personal and social determinants: motivations (from, socio-economic), desires & needs
(from personality and social influences), & expectations (from attitudes & values).
External variables: confidence, image of destination, previous experience, & constraints of
Travel desires -> information search -> assessment & comparison of travel alternatives
An activities-based model of destination choice
Information about destinations
Socio-psychological variable (experience, life cycle, available time = motives)
Images of destinations
3 main types of attraction: Cultural, natural & entertainment oriented
Clawson’s classification of recreation resources
User-orientated: based on whatever resources are available
Often artificial developments (city parks, pools, etc)
Highly intensive developments close to users in large population centres
Focus of user pressure
Often highly seasonal activities, closing in off-peak.
Golf, tennis, picnic, riding
Intermediate: best resources available within accessible distance to users
Accessibility very important
More natural r