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Geography 2144A/B
L.Graham Smith

Introduction  Destination is an excuse to take the trip  One of the paradoxes of otherness is that in travel, each conceives(imagines) the other to be a foreigner  Travel is a state of mind. It has nothing to do with distance or exotic (foreigner). It is almost entirely an inner experience.  The whole point of travel is discovery, and few experiences can match satisfaction of such an extraordinary discovery near home.  Travel had to do with movement and truth: with trying everything, offering yourself to experience and then reporting on it.  EVERY TRIP IS UNIQUE and has an historical dimension.  Travel is a vanishing act, consciously experimenting with space and time.  Travellers are essentially optimists.  Tourists always labour under a time constraint and are the unwilling victims of cost efficiency.  So they stay together, travel within a narrow compass and tend to stay put.  Tourists are contained, for benefits of both locals and themselves.  By being kept in one place, there is no risk and no interruption in flow of local life.  Giorgio Morandi:  One can travel this world and see nothing.  To achieve understanding, it is necessary not to see many things The Visitor  The organised mass tourists:  Low on adventurousness, anxious to maintain one’s own “environmental bubble”.  Guided through the destination having little contact with local culture or people.  The individual mass tourists:  Similar to the organised mass tourists, but more flexibility and scope for personal choice is built.  However, still organised by the tourism industry and the “environmental bubble” shield one from the real experience  The explorer:  Organised independently and looking to get off the beaten track.  Comfortable accommodation and reliable transport are sought  “Environmental bubble” is abandoned on occasion.  The drifter:  All connections with the tourism industry are spurned (gone) and the trip attempts to get as far from home and familiarity as possible.  No fixed itinerary, lives with the local people, paying one’s way and immersing (담그다) oneself in their culture.  Mass tourist is known as institutionalised tourism (Familiarity):  Dealt with routinely by the tourism industry.  Explorer and drifter is non-institutionalised tourism (Novelty):  Individual travel and shuts contact with the tourism industry.  Factors those shift demand for tourism:  Safety, security, politics, economics & seasonality. The Host  The role of the host: welcoming & inviting.  What is it like to live in a tourist location after the tourists have gone?  When the season is over, what is left?  Levels of cultural penetration:  Stage A: previous level of cultural penetration, tourists  Stage B: staged authenticity, where tourists visit  Stage C: true cultural heritage, cultural curtain boundary exists.  The determinants and influences of carrying capacity:  The interaction between local and alien (foreign) factors, directed and governed by the planning process (-> management of development -> technology) will determine the impacts.  These impacts are on society, culture, environment, economy, and tourists.  The value of carrying capacity soon becomes accepted and this level of acceptance influences the local and alien factors at the top of the process and modifies tolerance levels throughout.  Do tourists and locals have the same perspective?  If tourist season demands one level of services, what happens to those services in off-season?  Should a country’s capital city be a showpiece?  What is necessary to improve host conduct and practices? Motivation  Consumer decision-making framework  Socio-economic influences: motivation  Reference group influences: personality & attitudes  Cultural influences: perception (awareness & recognition)  Family influence: learning  These four factors are considered when consumer makes decision.  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Physiological: food, rest, activity  Safety: security, freedom from fear and anxiety  Belonging and love: affection, giving, and receiving love  Esteem(respect): self-esteem and esteem for others  Self-actualisation: personal self-fulfillment  The Schmoll model  Travel stimulation(inspiration)  Personal and social determinants: motivations (from, socio-economic), desires & needs (from personality and social influences), & expectations (from attitudes & values).  External variables: confidence, image of destination, previous experience, & constraints of time  Travel desires -> information search -> assessment & comparison of travel alternatives  Decision  An activities-based model of destination choice  Information about destinations  Socio-psychological variable (experience, life cycle, available time = motives)  Images of destinations  Destination choice Tourist Attractions  3 main types of attraction: Cultural, natural & entertainment oriented  Clawson’s classification of recreation resources  User-orientated: based on whatever resources are available  Often artificial developments (city parks, pools, etc)  Highly intensive developments close to users in large population centres  Focus of user pressure  Often highly seasonal activities, closing in off-peak.  Golf, tennis, picnic, riding  Intermediate: best resources available within accessible distance to users  Accessibility very important  More natural r
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