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Geo of Tourism Full Notes

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Geography 2144A/B
L.Graham Smith

Geography of Tourism 2144F  [email protected]  What is the best vacation experience that you’ve had ever in your life? o Meaning  1 Assignment: 20% Your experience  past  on line text  class  future  your experience o Limited to 15 power point slides o Will work in improving power point skills nd  2 Assignment: 30% Dream Vacation o Make it realistic  who, what, when, where, why o Something you are going to take  Exam: 50 % registrars exam o Or take home exam: 30% o Rest of the exam 20%  The other: the foreigner o Paradoxes of otherness o Travel is a state of mind  The whole point of travel is discovery o About the place, space, or yourself  Travel has to do with movement and truth  Every trip is unique  from my perspective o Thoughts, feelings, touch, taste, experience, etc.  Every trip has a historical dimension, every trip is rooted in the time the people, the phase in our life in which we took the trip  Travel is about optimism  There is no higher travel  Tourists are always operating under a time constraint  You must experience travel and learn and understand  Technique vs. creativity o Judging content o How creative are you? Week 1: Objectives and Foundational Constructs  Intentional  The Letter: o Give me a ticket for an aeroplane o I ain’t got time to take no fast train o Lonely days are gone, I’m coming home o My baby, she wrote me a letter...  Accidental  Destination anywhere: o Said to the man at the railroad station o I want a ticket just for one o He said well if you insist, where you want to go miss? o Destination anywhere, east or west I don’t care...  My destination was merely an excuse to take a trip o One of the paradoxes of otherness is that in travel each conceives the other to be a foreigner. o Travel is a state of mind. It has nothing to do with distance or the exotic. It is almost entirely an inner experience. o The whole point of travel is discovery, and few experiences can match the satisfaction of such an extraordinary discovery near home.  Theroux  circumstances are everything o Travel had to do with movement and truth: with trying everything, offering yourself to experience and then reporting on it. o Every trip is unique. My travel book is about my trip, not yours or anyone else’s. Even if someone had come with me and written a book about the trip it would have been a different book. o Every trip has a historical dimension.  I tried to make portraits of the towns and cities...I looked closely, I listened hard, I sniffed and wrote everything down… o Travel is a vanishing act, a solitary trip down a pinched line of geography to oblivion...consciously experimenting with space and time o but travel – its very motion – ought to suggest hope. Despair is the armchair; it is indifference and glazed incurious eyes. I think travellers are essentially optimists, or else they would never go anywhere.  There is a sort of voluntary apartheid that keeps tourists and locals separate o Tourists always labour under a time constraint and are the unwilling victims of cost efficiency; so they stay together, they travel within a narrow compass, and they tend to stay put, once they have arrived. o Tourists are contained, partly for their own benefit, partly for the benefit of locals. By being kept in one place, there is no risk of their interrupting the flow of local life.  Giorgio Morandi o One can travel this world and see nothing. o To achieve understanding it is necessary not to see many things, o But to look hard at what you do see  Learning o The mind once stretched by an idea can not go back to being the same o If I tell you, you have been told, you do not know o Discover and find out for yourself, then you will have learnt o Technique vs. creativity o Grades Needs work, more effort C/D, Ok promising, B, Good B+, Very good A-, Excellent A, Outstanding A+  Pedagogy th September 19 , 2013 The Visitor  Are all tourists the same?  What are some of the key: o Similarities o Differences  Examples: o Chav tourists  people who wear athletic gear but don’t play sports  British meaning for ‘trash’  We tend to want to vacation with people who are like-minded as us o Vacation o My Life in Ruins o In Bruges  Colin Ferrell movie  Idea that every place is perceived differently by every person  Different types of tourists and tourism  Concepts and constructs  Is it useful and/or important to measure demand?  Have patterns of tourism demand changed? why? Classification of Tourists (After Cohen) Familiarity  Institutionalized Tourism  Organized Mass Tourist o Certain price point, stay in the context of the tourist bubble, paying for their own benefit o Stays within the circle of tourism  Least adventurous  Predefined, purchased and packaged holiday  Remain within a tourist bubble, distinct from the host community and defined by the resort complex  Use the itinerary fixed by the tour operators and trips out of the complex are organised tours  Make few decisions about their holiday  Individual Mass Tourist  Also uses facilities made available by tour operators but exercises greater control over their own itinerary  Resort or hotel serves as a base  Arranges private tours or hires a car for trips Novelty Non-institutionalized Tourism  Explorer o Makes their own travel and accommodation arrangements o Attempts to get off the beaten track and experience new spaces and places o Comfortable tourist accommodation is used and life style is retained o Travel is motivated by a desire for authenticity tempered by consideration for personal safety  Drifter o Scorns the tourist bubble  Last thing they want see is another tourist  Looking to explore, from the developed world but experiencing something else  Must have a certain degree of confidence and self interest to travel alone  Adventure seeking o Shuns contact with tourists and mass tourism o Seeks authentic identification with the host community, often by working or volunteering o Tendency to mix with disadvantaged and/or marginalized socio-economic groups o Actively seeks new destinations and is prepared to take risks in experiencing new cultures, spaces and places The Leisure Paradox Time Discretion Income Discretion Plogs Classification of Tourists    Allocentric Type o People belonging to this type are often adventure seekers and go for new experiences. They prefer outings and are self-confident. And they are not only comfortable meeting strangers or new people but also it fascinates them for they explore into their cultures while such meetings. These people specify the area and make their own travel arrangements. Tourist attractions and activities to be participated will have to be solely decided by them. o Adventure seeking, brave, looking to go to places that are underdeveloped  i.e. Fiji, Lima, St. Petersburg  Mid- Centric Type o These ones are in the middle path between the other two types. They are not particularly adventurous and there will be no self-effort to visit bizarre places. But at the same time these do not oppose to experiments regarding touring in terms of activities or strange places. Hence they are very receptive to new experiences.  LA, Barbados, Tahiti  Psycho-Centric Type o These types are generally conservative, inhibited and unadventurous. These guys are traditional and have little curiosity to visit strange places. Frequently these members keep returning to familiar destinations to avoid troubles. They want to relax, love serenity and better happy when undisturbed. Tourists of Psycho-centric type expect the same food and activities. Ultimate factor is that they are too much worried about touring is safety and security.  Las Vegas, London, Bahamas  How do you get in touch with the past?  Looking for a big city that is different Demand for Tourism  Canadians as a source of visitors to the US.  What are world trends?  Demand shifters o Safety o Security o Politics o Economics o Seasonality  Are all tourists the same?  What are some of the key: similarities, differences o No; different types of tourists  institutionalized vs. non-institutionalized tourism and classification of tourists  Is it useful and/or important to measure demand?  Have patterns of tourism demand changed? Why? th September 27 , 2013 The Host  What is the role of the host?  Welcoming  Inviting  Basil Fawlty  Positive or negative attitudes  Tourism illiteracy  Resentment  Social, economic and cultural differences  Benefits vs. impacts  If you were developing tourism, who would be your allies; your opponents?  How does the literature on tourism consider the topic of tourism "hosts"? Levels of Cultural Penetration • Tourist • Staged authenticity • Cultural curtain • Authentic cultural heritage Carrying Capacity: Key Elements • Local Factors • External Factors After the Tourists Have Gone...  So what is it like to live in a tourist location after the tourists have gone?  When the season is over, what is left?  What about working in the tourism sector?  Who works?  Why?  How does that change them as a tourist?  Cruise Confidential  What are there differences between: o living in a tourist place that was built around tourism (e.g. Las Vegas or Orlando) o from a location that happens to host tourism but has a life outside tourism (e.g. the English West Country, Niagara on the Lake or the Muskokas)? Discussion Questions  Do tourists and locals have the same perspective? o consider the development of a new marina o the development or expansion of “mainstreet" o the addition of a big box store e.g. Wal Mart  If tourist season demands one level of services, what happens to those services in off-season?  Should a country’s capital city be a showpiece? o Why?  Identify 5 capital cities: o What do they do to create a positive host impression?  What is necessary to improve host conduct and practices? October 3 , 2013 Motivation  What is the motivation or idea?  Basic notion we all have as tourists is to have fun  Why are some places attractive, and less attractive than others  What motivates us to go where we go and why?  Why are some spaces and places attractive to some and less appealing to others?  What are the most popular tourist destinations? Why?  World tourism rankings 2010 o Travel trends for 2010 o Universal o Romace is a universal motivation to travel  i.e. Love Actually  Personal  Nights in Rodanthe  Folly Beach The Consumer as a decision maker  Socio-economic influences  motivation  Reference group influence  perception  Cultural influences  personality and attitude  Family influence  learning Maslows Hierarchy of Needs October 10 , 2013 Tourist Attractions 3 main types of attraction:  Cultural  Natural  Entertainment oriented  Top 25 Most Visited Tourist Attractions in N.America   What made that experience special? o The WHO you shared it with o When it doesn’t work is when you have an expectation that doesn’t pan out o Discussion  Identify a tourist destination you want to visit.  What is the primary reason you wish to go there?  Is this the same motivation or different for another destination?  Is your choice of destination: o Place dependent? o Space dependent? o People dependent? o Independent of any of these? o Influenced by....what? October 10 , 2013 Tourist Attractions  3 main types of attraction: o Cultural o Natural o Entertainment oriented  Top 25 Most Visited Tourist Attractions in N.America Classification of Resources after Clawson  User Oriented o Based on availability o Created developments to match activity desires  City parks  Pools  Zoos o Activities include:  Golf  Tennis  Walking o Seasonal  Intermediate o Accessible distance to users o More natural than artificial:  Camping  Hiking  Swimming  Hunting  Fishing  Resource based o Natural resources with minimal, low-intensity development o Resource determines activity:  Skiing  Hiking  Climbinng  Cultural and Heritage  Indigenous  Colonial and nationalistic  Frontier  Immigrant  Industrial  Example: York, Pennsylvania o Gettysburg o Harley Davidson o Lancaster County Nature Based  Ecotourism  Wildlife viewing  National and State parks  Examples: o Monterey Bay Aquarium o Arches N.P. Entertainment Based  Casinos and gambling o Las Vegas  Amusement Parks o Disney your inner child o Disney Theme Parks  Seaside resorts and Beach Based o Atlantic City o Folly Beach  Religious and Pilgrimage o Graceland o 9/11 WTC o Dakota Building Whats not in Most Texts?  Sex Tourism o LGBT o Hedonism o Male  TSMtraveller  All inclusive escorts  Red lights: Amsterdam o Female  S. Europe  Caribbean o Child  Poverty  Exploitation  Other forms of specialized tourism o Lisbeth Salander’s Sweden  Niches o Types of tourist o Numbers o Characteristics  Timing  Flow pattern o Marketing o Staff training  Discussion  Identify 3 attractions in an area: o Public o Not for profit o Private  How are they similar and different w.r.t. o Advertising o Price o Type of visitors o Service quality  What additional attraction would be successful? o Why?  Pick an attraction from one of the gateway cities  Do a SWOT analysis: o Strengths o Weaknesses o Opportunity o Threats  What does your analysis suggest for the future of that attraction? th October 17 , 2013 Infrastructure  How to get there and where to stay?  Getting where we want to go, when we want to get there... o planes, trains and automobiles o slow boat to China o cruises  Tourism infrastructure starts with transportation  B
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