Geography of Tourism Exam
Exam questions will be statements “…. Discuss”
They are statements that are reflective of the meaning of tourism
o Ex: “Tourism is/is not a necessity. Discuss.”
o Ex: “Disney is the best tourist experience in the world. Discuss.”
Questions will revolve around:
o What do I know how about me as a tourist that I didn’t know about before taking
o What is tourism according to you?
o Having read the book, done the assignments, sessions in class, what do you now
know about tourism and yourself as a tourist that you didn’t know before
o Difference between USA tourism and tourism in the rest of the world?
Compare different constructs
Similarities and differences
Ex: How is heritage treated in USA vs. Italy
Use your own personal experiences
When did you do this trip?
Point of exam – show what I learned
o A – people that show up say this is what I learned about tourism that I didn’t know
before this is what I now know about me as a tourist – reflective learning
o B – will copy from the textbook – not reflective
o C – haven’t read the book, haven’t bought it
Q: Difference between USA tourism and tourism with rest of the world?
Compare two different places – place in USA vs. Italy?
o How do I understand tourism and the distinction between USA and Italy from my
o Compare two places I’ve been
o What I knew then?
o What I know?
o How do I see myself as a tourist then and now?
Size and Diversity
o USA – large different cultures – melting pot tourism
o Italy – mainly one culture – used for tourism
o USA – landscape, environment
o Italy – historical and cultural
o US no, Italy yet
How is heritage treated in the USa vs Italty – book suggests these things about heritage.
I'm using my own personal expeirences – when did I do the trip?
In retrospect – looking at what I observed in Italy and what I’ve observed
There are similarities and differences Challenging what I did and did not know
What do I know now?
How it’s changed you?
What am as a tourist in the future?
How do I se myself as a tourist now and in the future?
2 essay questions
Me as a tourist – essay #1
What I learned as a tourist #2
Questions are statements
What I learned about tourist… what I learned about myself as a tourist?
Place isn’t different, but experience of it is – metaphor of the course
Rural vs urban
Stadiums, festivals, events
*Statement questions on the exam will revolve around these questions below. Use the
answers to these questions to fit them into the statement questions on the exam.
Q: What I learned about me as a tourist/tourism?
Classification of Tourists
The metaphor of the course is that all tourists are not alike. While the places are the same, everyone has a different way of experiencing tourism
Everyone has different reactions to different places, different ideas of fun, goals interests,
There are different types of tourism: Cohen’s Classification of Tourists:
o (1) Organized Mass Tourist
Purchases a ready-made trip package tour
Guided destination with little contact with culture or people
o (2) Individual Mass Tourist
Similar to above, but looks to add in personal choice
But still organized by tourist industry
Still shielded from experiencing the culture and people
o (3) Explorer
Trip organized independently, looking to get off the beaten track
Comfortable accommodation and reliable transport
Looks to abandon tourism area to experience culture and people
o (4) Drifter
No connection to tourist industry
No fixed itinerary
Engage with local culture and people
- Me = 'Individual Mass Tourist' and 'Explorer'.
o I prefer an organized pre-packaged, but a private tour. Personally, I want to
experience what others are unable to. My travels would usually include
comfortable accommodations and dependable transport. With that said, as an
'explorer', I prefer to engage in only one or two planned activities and the rest of
my trip is usually impulsive or 'planned as I go'.
o Overall, I place a high value on a quality experience with a combination of
adventure, luxury and unique accommodations. I am willing to spend more money
in order to fully enjoy the experience.
o Africa – explain how it fits into my type of a tourist
o For instance, when I embarked on my African Safari (which I did for ‘My Tourist
Experience” assignment), the trip was pre-packed by a tourist company, but was
a private guided tour
o Explore and impulsive – visited stone town in Zanzibar and Masaai village
Use Consumer Decision Making Framework Chart
Everyone has different motivations for traveling and have
different motivations for traveling to different places
o (1) My family influence
Learning and experience family culture
Ex: Israel I went to visit Israel to see my
families culture and learn about my personal
o (2) Socio-economic influence
My economic status
Traditional-Leisure Paradox – Time vs
Money o (3) Cultural Influence
Do I want to go see specific cultures? Or experience specific cultures?
o (4) Reference Group Influence
In school I learned a lot about both World and American history which got
me very interested in visiting historical heritage sites around the world
Ex: traveled to Italy and New York
Place Dependant vs. Space Dependant?
o Place – particular places such as Scotland or Egypt
o Space – Beach, Golf, Ski
I am sometimes more space dependant (beaches when I need to relax,
historical motivations), other times I am more place dependant (Italy,
Influenced by what/whom??
o Going by yourself? Family? Friends etc.
Do I want a unique and authentic experience
Do I want to shop?
Do I want to do things that people don’t normally do?
o Yes – climb mount Everest in my dream vacation
What motivates us to go where we go and why?
o 4 S’s - Sun, Sand, Sea, Sex (Romance/Love)
- I have learned that overtime, Tourism has gone from being a luxury item to something
that being are used to doing
- I am a part of this group – I see tourism as a basic human right
- Tourism has become a basic human right – to go on vacation
- It has become a notion of equality and how people are treated
- Purpose of travel = human right for people to travel
- Suggests that basic condition of humanity is the desire to experience other places
- Not just your home, but desire to see other places
- We now have an expectation that in December or even in February, we are going
- Should be the 6 aspect of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
- The need for travel is a necessity not a luxury
- Why has this happened?
o Globalization has made tourism cheaper
o Travel ticket prices has gone down substantially over the past few decades
making travel easier
o We can go further then every
- Personal - reflective
o For me, I expect to travel at least twice per year – December Break and February
Break and sometimes in the summer.
o It’s become a human right, a necessity
o Not a luxury
Tourism as a Business
- The business of tourism is distinct from all other types of businesses
- Tourism cannot be defined as “a production process involving a distinct product and identifiable inputs”
- Why? Because tourism as a final product is the experience itself
- The consumer is involved in creating the experience
- It is the consumption of the tourism experience that defines what the experience is
- But, because everyone is different - has different tourism desires, needs, motivations, the
final product will be different for everyone
- *See different classifications of tourists, different motivations, expectations
- Cannot say “Disney is the best tourist experience in the world”
o Why because for some this may not be true
o My experience on the African Safari in Kenya and Tanzania could have been much
different for someone else
o Whereas I prefer to see beautiful environmental landscapes and enjoy nature-based
tourism, someone else may not enjoy it
o They may prefer to be active, play sports, or rather just sit on a beach
How has this changed you? How do I see myself as a tourist now and in the future?
Future Assignments/Future Dream Vacations?
- How has this changed you?
o I know what I like, what motivates me to travel, what I desire to do, how I like to do it
o More accepting of different peoples tourists desires, motivations, and expecations
- How do I see myself as a tourist now and in the future?
o After doing my assignments, learning in class and doing the readings…
o I now understand the trends, what makes tourism work, what drives tourism, I know
what I want to do, see, where I want to go?
o I know the factors that will influence my travel decisions – desires, family influences,
- Future Assignments/Dream Vacations
o I did my dream vacation on the Wonders of the World
o Why? – history, seeing things that people don’t usually experience (Ex: Mount
o Next trip – more Wonders of the World – Taj Mahal, etc.
These are more historical, explorer type sites that fit my personality