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Geography Terms-1.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
Geography 2153A/B
Professor
Jamie Baxter
Semester
Fall

Description
Geography Terms 12/19/2013 7:05:00 AM Hydrologic Cycle  The movement of water between the atmosphere, terrestrial systems, and the oceans through evaporation, runoff from streams and rivers and precipitation Groundwater  Water that has accumulated beneath the Earth’s surface in underground aquifers (reservoirs) and in the saturation zone below the water table  Water percolates down through soils, gravel, and rock and rises up from below to slow replenish aquifers and saturation zones Surface Water  All bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, streams and oceans that lie on the surface of the Earth Aquifer  Underground zone or layers of porous rock saturated with water from which an economically significant amount of groundwater can be obtained through a well Instream Uses  Water is used in its natural setting for hydroelectric power, transportation, fisheries, and other applications Withdrawal Uses  Water is removed from its natural setting by pipes or channels for a particular human use (consumption, mineral extraction, irrigation, and other applications) Intake  The quantity of water withdrawn Discharge  The amount of water returned to the original source Recirculation  Water that is reused in an particular distribution system. It may be used more than once in a specific process or used once and then recycled to another process Gross Water Use  The total amount of water used (Intake + Recirculation) Point Source  Pollution sources that discharge substances from a clearly identifiable or discrete pathway such as a pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, or conduit Nonpoint Source  Pollutants discharged in an unconfined manner such as runoff Primary Treatment  The lowest level of treatment in the management of municipal wastes that involves the mechanical removal of large solids, sediment and some organic matter Secondary Treatment  The second level of treatment in the management of municipal wastes that employs biological processes by which bacteria degrade most of the dissolved organics, about 30 percent of the phosphates, and about 50% of the nitrates Tertiary Treatment  The third level of treatment in the management of municipal wastes that involves a chemical process to remove phosphates, nitrates, and other contaminants not removed during secondary treatment Organohalides  Carbon-Hydrogen compounds that are bonded to a halogen Carcinogen  A cancer-causing agent Bioaccumulation  The uptake and retention of substances in organisms Biomagnification and Bioaccumulation  The accumulation of concentration of certain substances in organisms, such as chlorinated organic compounds (DDT) in the fatty tissues of predators in the Arctic marine environment  Arctic ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to contamination by chemical compounds that have been transported over long distances o Compounds such as DDT bioaccumulate readily in fatty tissues of long lived animals at the tops of food chains o The long and complex food web of the arctic allows persistent contaminants to become highly concentrated in top predators Synergistic Effects  Outcomes in which the effects of two or more substances or organisms acting together are greater than the sum of their individual effects  They are multiplicative, not additive Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)  The 200 km area of exclusive fishing rights granted to Canada in the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea  It’s implementation led to the mistaken assumption that Canada’s fisheries were thriving, so fish like Cod continued to be overfished for some time  It also led to the Canada-Spain Turbot War where a Canadian ship fired upon and seized a Spanish vessel that was breaking quota limits just outside the EEZ Polynyas  An area of unfrozen sea water, created by local water currents in northern oceans  They act as biological hotspots and serve as vital winter refuges for marine mammals Sustainable Yield  The practice of harvesting renewable resources so that an even flow of resources in perpetuity may be obtained Canada-Spain Turbot War (1995)  The Turbot War of 1995 was an international fishing dispute between Canada, (supported by the United Kingdom and Ireland) and Spain (supported by the European Union and Iceland) in which Canada stopped a Galician (Spanish) fishing trawler in international waters and arrested its crew. Canada claimed that European Union factory ships were illegally overfishing Greenland halibut, also known as Greenland turbot, on the Grand Banks, just outside Canada's declared 200 nautical mile (370 km) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Northern Cod Moratorium  In 1992 the Canadian government declared a moratorium on the Northern Cod fishery, which for the past 500 years had largely shaped the lives and communities of Canada’s eastern coast. The interplay between fishing societies and the resources which they depend on is obvious to almost any observer: fisheries transform the ecosystem, which pushes the fishery and society to adapt.[2] In 1992 summer, when the Northern Cod biomass fell to 1% of its earlier level,[3] Canada’s federal government saw that this relationship had been pushed to breaking point, and they declared a moratorium, ending the region’s 500-year run with the Northern Cod.  The moratorium in 1992 marked the largest industrial closure in Canadian history.[12] In Newfoundland over 35,000 fishers and plant workers from over 400 coastal communities became unemployed.[5] In response to dire warnings of social and economic consequences, the federal government intervened, initially providing income assistance through the Northern Cod Adjustment and Recovery Program, and later through the Atlantic Groundfish Strategy, which included money specifically for the retraining of those workers displaced by the closing of the fishery.[13] Newfoundland has since experienced a dramatic environmental, industrial, economic, and social restructuring, including considerable outmigration,[14] but also increased economic diversification, an increased emphasis on education, and the emergence of a thriving invertebrates fishing industry (as the predatory groundfish population declined, snow crab and northern shrimp proliferated, providing the basis for a new industry that is roughly equivalent in economic value as the cod fishery it replaced). Killer Spike (1968)  The 1968 Northern Cod catch, called the killer spike had two important impacts on the fishing industry in Newfoundland o The huge harvest removed a large number of the northern cod population o It reduced the resiliency of the stock to rebound from fishing mortality and changing environmental conditions Aquaculture  The breeding and raising of fish under controlled conditions, with the goal of high-level production for food or recreational purposes  The use of aquaculture has grown significantly in Canada partly in response to declines in wild fish stocks  The risks associated with aquaculture are: o Colonization of BC rivers by escaped salmon o Genetic interaction o Transmission of disease o Organic waste o Drugs and chemicals Urban Runoff  Urban runoff is one of the most significant examples of a nonpoint source of pollution o It’s hard to track and control o Rainwater runoff picks up all kinds of contaminants that eventually end up in the oceans and other bodies of water Deforestation  To clear an area of forests or trees, usually for lumber or agricultural uses, or building infrastructure  Brazil had the distinction of being the leader in deforestation in the world Clear-cutting  A system of tree harvesting that removes all the trees in a given area, as opposed to selective cutting that leaves some trees standing  Replanting after clear-cutting is difficult  This is the dominant method of harvesting in Canada o Timber companies prefer this method because it is normally the most cost-effective and safest way to harvest trees  Some supporters claim it is the most ecologically appropriate form of logging as it mimics natural disturbances such as forest fires  Clear cutting results in microclimates, removal of habitat, soil degradation, damaged water habitats and destruction of diversity Highgrading  An unsound practice associated with selective cutting techniques that involves logging the highest quality and most accessible timber first  This process yields short term economic gains but has long term ecological consequences o Constantly reduces the quality of forest  Take the best and leave the rest Continuous Clear Cutting  Locating cut blocks adjacent to each other in successive years, a practice that rapidly lays bare much larger areas  This is now illegal in Canada Silviculture  The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest strands  This includes planting and seeding new trees, site rehabilitation, spacing and fertilization Sustained Yield Forest Management  Timber should be cut no faster than new trees can grow so that an even flow of timber in perpetuity can be obtained  If yield is to be maintained, all the trees cut down should be replaced each year with new trees that are allowed to mature to a size comparable to the original tree on the site before they are logged  However, Volume always peaks before quality Clayoquot Sound  A forest area in British Columbia that became an important focal point in the conflict over forest values and issues of environmental and economic sustainability  It’s a rare forest type (coastal temperate rain forest) which only covers 0.2% of the world’s surface Boreal Forest  A forest area which covers 50% of the country  The boreal ecoregion is the largest forest ecosystem in the world  The boreal forest is home to an estimated 2.5 million Aboriginal and non-aboriginal people o Increased exploitation of the boreal forest has conflicted with Aboriginal people’s traditional use and occupancy of those lands  They contain vast amounts of carbon and therefore play an important role in understanding and addressing climate change  ½ of Canada’s harvest comes from the boreal forest Mineral Fuels  Crude oil and equivalents, including natural gas, coal, and natural gas byproducts  In 2002 they accounted for approximately 77% of the total value of Canadian mineral production Nonfuel minerals  Metallic minerals such as copper, gold, iron…as well as nonmetallic minerals such as potash  They accounted for the remaining 23% of Canada’s total mineral production Precious Metals  Metals, such as gold and silver, that are valuable to humans because of their rarity or appearance One-industry Towns/Company Towns  A community whose existence depends on the exploitation of a single resource  In Canada there is a significant imbalance between the distribution of people (south) and the distribution of resources (north) Acid Mine Drainage  Acidic water that drains from mine sites and sometimes enters streams and lakes  When exposed to air and water, the sulfide materials oxidize and generate sulfuric acid  This is the most important environmental issue associated with mining Shadow Effects  Indirect activities associated with mining including the constructions of roads and such Mineral Exploration  Finding geological, geophysical, or geochemical conditions that differ from those of their surroundings  Expenditure are high during the exploration phase and there’s no guarantee of actually finding anything useful  When exploring, companies must follow guidelines to ensure they do not overly disrupt the environment Environmental Impact Assessment  A process that aims to provide decision makers with scientifically researched and documented evidence to identify the likely consequences of undertaking new development and changing natural systems Environmental Impact Statement  A key component of an EIA, it provides a nontechnical summary of the study, including the main project characteristics, aspects of the environment likely to be affected, possible alternatives, and suggested measures and systems to monitor or reduce any harmful effects Open-pit mining  A type of mining in which minerals are extracted from the earth by diffing that leaves a large pit in the surface Strip Mining  Surface mining in which heavy machinery strips away the overlying layer of rock and soil to create a trench that exposes the mineral resource below Milling  In the processing of minerals, the crushing and grinding of ores to separate the useful materials from the nonuseful ones Tailing  The nonuseful materials removed from the mill after the recoverable minerals have been extracted in the processing of minerals Klondike Gold Rush  Dawson City became a thriving community, creating wealth for both prospectors and the Canadian government  Encroaching populations disrupted the traditional ways of life of Aboriginal peoples  The Yukon gold rush illustrates the boom and bust cycle associated with the mining industry and the history of mining in Canada o Mining is especially vulnerable to short-term changes in the supply demand and price of an individual commodity Impact Benefit Agreements  They are negotiated between a private company, various levels of government and local communities to enhance local benefits from resource production  Limitations: o Lack of transparency o Benefits unequally shared within the community  Distributive justice o Employment is only meaningful if available and who pays for training BHP Billiton
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