57 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Geography 3411A/B
Jeff Hopkins

Cultural Identities, Diversity & Multiculturalism 9/9/2013 6:37:00 AM Introduction  Culture  Power  The challenges of „cultural geography‟  Culturalism  Multi-culturalism Culture  Origin of Term th o 18 Century:  Tending of natural growth  Activity of learning  A process of human training th o Early 19 Century:  General state or habit of the mind  An ideal of human perfection  A condition, an entity in itself th o Mid 19 Century:  General state of intellectual development in society as a whole th o Early 20 Century  A whole way of life  Materially  Intellectually  Spiritually Contemporary Definitions of ‘Culture’  Artistic & intellectual product of an elite o E.g. Film, dance, theatre  A system of shared beliefs o E.g. Religion, democracy, capitalism  Capabilities & habits acquired by members of society o E.g. Knowledge, customs, morals, laws  The totality of shared, learned way of life o E.g. Speech, spatial behaviour, livelihood, technology, government  “Those deep, common, unstated experiences which members of a given [group] share, which they communicate without knowing, and which form the backdrop against which all other events [and people] are judged” – Edward T. Hall (like a fish in water)  “The on-going outcome of organized activities, selected from the past, embedded in the present, anticipating a future” – Dr. Elaine Bjorklund Our ‘Course” Conception of Culture  The medium through which meanings & values are expressed and negotiated (contested and/or sustained) o Examples: language, art, clothing, food, body, architecture, music ‘Institutions’  Regularly repeated social practices that are o Sanctioned & maintained by social norms o And have a major significance in the social structure of society ‘Social Structures’  Any recurring pattern of social behaviour shared among people Examples?  Economic institution  Bank  Social institution  Marriage  Political institution  Parliament Institutionalized & Systemic Prejudice?  Homophobia in professional sports Four Components of Culture  Material expressions of shared meanings & values o E.g. Wedding ring, cars, golf course, bar, tattoo, fence  The production & reproduction of shared meanings & values through social practices that transpire in specific historical & geographical contexts o E.g. Weddings, New Year‟s Eve, Divisions of labour (women at home), Degrees granted exclusively by universities Characteristics of ‘Culture’  Human Creation: o Invented, practiced, changed, maintained by people  Culture if produced and reproduced by individuals and groups  We make our cultures…and our cultures make us o „Structuration theory‟  Dynamic & Constant o Change vs. tradition  Video Byte: Tradition & Culture o Rick Mercer  Scale Varies: Global to local  Not a Vacuum o Produced & practiced in a larger context of other places & times  Medium of Expression o Everything humans know, use or invent – material or immaterial – expresses or reveals something about humanity, about culture  Relative but Contestable o Relativity  fair interpretations  i.e. similar but different o Contestable  not every „way of doing or thinking‟ is acceptable  i.e. different & unacceptable o On what grounds?  Need to build a sound argument: critical thought!  Spatial o How space is used, organized, arranged & ascribed meaning or identity by people reveals culture o Space is a medium or cultural expression  Plurality o Many cultures exist within a society  Examples  Working class culture  Elite class culture o Cultures may overlap creating still other sub-cultures o Cultural attributes may be expressions of differing economic and political attributes  Examples  Working class culture – semi-skilled jobs  Hip-hop music – US „black‟ working class  „Proper‟ English – educated, middle & upper classes  Political o Cultural expression are „sites of struggle‟:  Who‟s culture is acceptable?  Where? When? By whom?  Which identities are acceptable to whom? Where? Battleground Issues in the ‘Culture Wars’  Abortion  Media bias  Dead white males  Euthanasia Since „culture‟ is a dynamic process or medium here social-economic- political differences are contested, negotiated, challenged, and sustained…Culture is politically-charged. Meanings & values shared by different grounds are contested and negotiated…within a context of uneven power Because „culture is political,‟ landscapes are contested and negotiated by cultural groups within an uneven scale of power Various individuals, groups, & institutions occupy differing spaces of social-economic-political power By ‘differing spaces’ is meant  Place in physical space: i.e. location o E.g. poor vs. wealthy neighbourhood  Place in social space: i.e. status o E.g. male doctor vs. female clerk  Place in lived world: i.e. experience o E.g. lifestyle Because different cultural groups occupy different places of power, certain cultural individuals & groups dominate & impose or privilege their meanings & values – their culture – the dominant culture – upon other less powerful individuals & groups – subordinant groups – and their marginalized subordinant culture  Examples: marijuana abuse Cultural groups, artifacts may range from most dominant to most subordinate along a scale of cultural power + „White‟ Middle-aged male hetero - „Black‟ young female homo single Power  Definition: o An asymmetrical or unequal relationship o The ability to influence, if not determine, how people act: i) directly ii) indirectly o The capacity of some persons to produce intended & foreseen effects on others Subordinate groups may wish to  Remain subordinate o E.g. Hell‟s Angels  Strive to become dominant o E.g. the religious right or socialist left  Strive for acceptance by dominant group Dominant groups may wish to  Remain dominant o E.g. Conservative Party  Strive to increase dominance o E.g. Transnational corporations  Strive for inclusion of subordinant groups Spatial Strategies of Exercising Power  Exclude  Include  Contain  Expel Culture:  Political (Power relationships)  Spatial (in, over, through space) Canada‟s „multi-culturalism‟ becomes a site of contested meanings, a site of struggle, where ethnicities are sustained, challenged & negotiated Multi-Culturalism in Canada  A fact  An ideology  A government policy  A process A Fact  Demographically we are diverse o Aboriginals First Nations o Charter Groups: English (British) & French o Others  Diversity due to immigration o Demographic needs o Economic needs o International obligations  We need immigrants: will become more diverse o 1.5 TFR o 1 million workers short by 2011  Toronto‟s Diversity o 49% born outside of Canada o 43% self-identify as „visible minority‟ o Top 4 visible minority groups:  Chinese  South Asian  Black  Filipino o 21% are new immigrants since 1991 o Over 100 dialects and languages spoken An Ideology  A set of beliefs celebrating diversity and commensurate with the principles of freedom, tolerance & respect for individual differences  Underlying assumptions: o Society is diverse and wishes to remain so o Unity within diversity: all cultural groups equal o Cultural relativism: no one group is superior o Accommodation & mutual understanding will promote social harmony o Diversity must be actively managed, not simply tolerated A Government Policy  Initiated by Trudeau in 1971  Entrenched as government policy in 1988  Everyone is entitled to… o Equal treatment o Protection from racial discrimination o Equality of opportunity o The right to remain culturally different A Process  A „political‟ process…  Through which minority „racialized‟ and ethnic groups compete with central authorities and dominant cultural groups for achievement of certain goals and aspirations  Sometimes blood is spilled in the street, but usually resolved in court  An on-going process to resolve cultural conflicts  The alternative would be…? o Violence The Multi-Cultural Conundrum  How much diversity or plurality can a society incorporate without losing the social cohesion needed to function  Can „culture‟ be used as a defense? o To beat your spouse? o To smoke pot? o To deny daughters an education  Limits will be drawn: by whom? The Multi-Cultural Solution to a Pluralistic Society with Competing Groups?  Multiculturalism is a process – a tool, a means, an instrument – for peacefully resolving cultural conflicts  If subordinate cultural groups are protected on the basis of individual rights, so too will the rights of individuals in dominant cultural groups  Multiculturalism is necessarily cultural politics… Challenges of Cultural Geography  Challenges o To question „normalcy‟ o To examine & „map‟ the social – and consequently the political – relationships of culture(s) as they are manifest, contested and negotiated in, over & through space  Emphasis o We use a social-political perspective to view & critically critique cultural processes & products in both material (physical) & immaterial (mental) landscapes o “culture is politics” – Mitchell 2000  Key Questions o Who or what dominates?  Why? How? Where? o Who or what benefits?  Who or what does not? o Is there a more just & fair landscape we can build?  If so, how might we do so? Inequalities & Social Justice  „Difference‟ o „unlike‟ „distinct‟ „dissimilar‟ o Spatial differentiation: the uneven incidence of any condition o Not necessarily right or wrong  E.g. More skiers in Banff than London  Inequity o „lack of equality‟ o „lack of same kind of rank, value, size, number‟ o Inherent moral question of right or wrong  E.g. Women earn less than men in Canada; 1 in 5 Canadian children live in poverty o Spatial inequity: the unequal distribution of some particular kinds of attributes – income & other forms of material benefits – among a spatially defined population  E.g. Higher levels of poverty in Newfoundland than in Ontario  Social Justice o An ideal against which we measure the practices of society o Whose ideals does one use to „measure‟ society‟s practices?  Parents  Teachers  Peers  Government o Asks us to defend inequality or unequal, unfair treatment:  Inequities: o If we cannot justify inequalities – differences – or inequities – unfair treatment – then we are morally obliged to rectify the situation  Spatial Justice o How does space sustain & challenge inequalities & inequities? What are the dominant markers of an individual’s cultural identity?  Sex  Religion  Gender/sexuality  Nationality  Class  Race/ethnicity  Body Key Conceptual Tools  Marxist Theory o Critical of capitalism o Helps us commence our examination of differences & inequities  Ideology: „systems of belief‟ o Question „normalcy‟ Political Compass  What are your cultural politics?  Take this short quiz and find out: http://www.politicalcompass.org/  Print off the mapped results, bring it to class in 2 weeks, submit it anonymously Culturalism  „Super-Organic‟ Culture: o An external entity that exists at a higher o Level than the individual and is governed o By a logic of its own that actively o Constrains human behaviour  Characteristics: o Super-organic: greater than the organism; above or beyond humans o Beyond human control  E.g. “that‟s the way it is” o Used by humans in daily interactions but has its own internal momentum o No concern for individuals: a group thing  Culture is reified: it‟s given external independence & causative power  „Reification‟: o Convert a mental concept into a material thing o The mistaken way of thinking about an abstraction as if it were a real thing  Q: Examples of a reified concept? o Santa Clause o The economy  Criticisms: o Creation of culture?  Cultural products described  Processes creating culture unquestioned o Individuals subject to culture, cannot change culture o Economy – Politics – Society caused by „culture‟ o Limits questions  Avoids critical questions about unequal power o Physical & Material cultural stressed  Social & immaterial culture neglected  E.g. Tattoos o Super-organic Culture used as an  Explanation  Excuse  Justification for social and spatial inequalities Examples: racism, sexism, homophobia, classism, ageism, enablism  Culturalism: o A view that explains ways of doing & thinking in terms of culture itself, rather than seeing culture as something that needs to be explained o Examples:  Homeless living on streets explained by their preferred lifestyle choices not economic-political-social structures  Atrocities of NAZI Germany excused as the actions of a madman, rather than the compliance of many  Lynching of African Americans justified by the „racial‟ superiority of „Whites‟ rather than a culture of prejudice o Culturalist assumptions:  Culture is the „cause‟  Behaviour result of „culture‟  Individual/group shortcomings due to inherent flaws not larger context & conditions of society  No link to larger social structures of politics & economics  Blames victim entirely for situation o Need a Critical interpretation:  Culture is not the „cause‟: no explanatory help whatsoever  Culture itself needs to be understood & explained  Why are these cultures the way they are?  Need to consider the cultural politics of space!! Ideology & The Power to Spatially In/Ex-clude 9/9/2013 6:37:00 AM Introduction  Ideology  Hegemony  Social Closure  Resistance Ideology  Ideology Defined o “A system of beliefs to the exclusion of all others”  E.g. capitalism, Marxism, democracy, dictatorships, Christianity, Nazism, etc. o “A system of beliefs which allows us to commit atrocities and feel righteous about them”  E.g. killing in the name of…capitalism, Marxism, democracy, „freedom‟, Christianity, Nazism o Our working course definition…  A process which facilitates the pursuit of particular interests & sustains or challenges specific relations of domination (TEST QUESTION) o An ideology is not, by definition, a…  Secret  Illegal  Plot (to overthrow government, business or institutions by covert alliances)  „Conspiracy‟  Act of working in secret to obtain some goal, usually understood with negative connotations  An agreement between two or more persons to break the law at some time in the future  A plot to overthrow a government or other powers  Attempts to explain the cause of an event as a secret, and often deceptive, plot by a covert alliance o Society composed of…  Social Structures  E.g. coffee line-ups, tipping  Social Institutions  E.g. marriage, university, mosque  Social Organizations  E.g. sports clubs, a business  Individual Actions  E.g. talking, eating, dating o Society is a process of…  An on-going set of social relationships o Power  The ability to influence, if not determine, how people act, directly or indirectly o Domination:  An asymmetrical – uneven – relationship where one individual, group, organization or institution is endowed with power in a way that excludes others  Ideology + Society + Power + Domination o Closely linked concepts o Particular interests – ideology – are sustained or challenged by individuals, groups, organizations or institutions – society – by influencing or determining how people act – power – through social relationships that exclude others – domination (TEST QUESTION)  Ideology in Practice o Misrepresentation of ideas o Promote certain meanings, while excluding others  E.g. „The Truth Project‟ by Focus on the Family o Serve unequal social relations  E.g. Sentencing of Aboriginals in Canadian courts of law o May appear commonsensical, normal, „natural‟ o Failure to disclose interests  Concealment of Interests o Failure to make clear interests it represents o Partial or incomplete interpretations o Biased interpretation: incomplete disclosure  Plurality of Idelogies o No objective, „true‟ representations of culture & society, only different interpretations by differing individuals and groups o Each representation & interpretation has an ideology – a particular set of interests – which it serves o The concept of „hegemony‟ can help us deal with this plurality of ideologies… Hegemony  Defined o The power of a dominant class to persuade subordinate classes to accept its moral, political, and cultural values as the natural order  Characteristics o Cross-cultural transferrable of ideologies  E.g. dominant class transfers its values to subordinate class: Mercedes is the car to own o Obedience through persuasion not coercion  E.g. physical force not needed: subordinates persuaded to obey: capitalists convince you to spend beyond your limit using credit o Convince people against their better interests  Examples:  Capitalism: unemployment is „natural‟  Patriarchy: can‟t be a good mom and work outside the home  Treatment of First Nations: house and fridge better than nomadic life of hunting and fishing  Hegemony always contested by some of those subordinated: resistance occurs o E.g. women‟s rights  A dominant or „hegemonic‟ ideology is never accepted by all, hence a plurality of ideologies, with some more dominant or subordinate than others Social Closure  Definition o An approach to studying social relations which argues that social classes can be defined in terms of the way they yield power  Types of „Closure‟ o Exclusionary o Usurpationary o Dual  Exclusionary Closure o Dominant social groups exercise power in a donward direction by exluding less powerful groups from access to resources of one sort or another (economic, cultural, political)  Examples: „Profs‟ need a Ph.d.; Auto drivers need a license  Usurpationary Closure o Subordinate social groups are those that seek power in an upward direction, attempting to make inroads into the resources controlled by more powerful groups (legal or non-legal manner, passive or aggressive, but often illegal in terms of the laws of the more powerful): they resist the dominant order  Examples: Gays/Lesbians seek same-sex marriage; Low income students seek better OSAP; Squatters illegally living in vacant housing  Dual Closure o Exclusionary closure practiced by a group which itself practices usurpationary closure: directs power downward and upward  E.g. A „Black‟ Canadian male seeking „racial‟ equality at work, while subordinating his wife at home Like Fish in Water: Capitalism & Neo-Liberalism 9/9/2013 6:37:00 AM Introduction  Capitalism & Neo-Liberalism  Marxism o Historical Materialism o Base Determines Superstructure o Idea of „Determinism‟ o Cultural Materialism Recall: Tasks of Cultural Geographers  Tasks o To question „normalcy‟ o To examine & „map‟ the social – and consequently the political – relationships of culture(s) as they are manifest, contested and negotiated in, over & through space o But how do we go about these tasks?  Ideology: „Systems of belief‟ o Question „normalcy‟ o Capitalism…everywhere Conceptual Tools  Marxist Theory o Critical of capitalism o Great wealth created for some, but at what cost? o Critical of capitalism:  So what is „capitalism‟? Capitalism  An economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit, and the investment of capital is privately determined: and in which production, distribution, and prices of goods, services and labour are determined mainly through the influence of the forces of supply and demand in the operation of a free market  Economic system where private capital (wealth) is used to produce goods for profit  Economic system  Means of production all/mostly privately owned & operated for profit (land, labour, capital/materials)  Private investment & private profits  Supply & demand of free market determine: o Production, Distribution, Prices OF Goods, Services, Labour Strengths of Capitalism  Self-organizing  Rewards individual initiative  Rewards risk takers (investors)  Competition rewards efficiency  Competition rewards innovation  Trade promotes common interests  Creates immense material wealth  Wealth „trickles down‟ Canada’s ‘Mixed’ Economy  A capitalist economy in which government actively engages in managing, investing and restricting the market place Production, Distribution, Prices OF Goods, Services, Labour Political Left vs. Political Right  A question of the role of government in the economy  NDP o More government regulation o Same/higher taxes o Spend on social programs o Less privatization  Conservatives o Less government regulation o Lower taxes o Spend on military, boarders o More privatization What is ‘Neo-Liberalism’?  Capitalism & Neo-Liberalism o A capitalist ideology that privileges  Free markets (e.g. free-trade)  Privatization (e.g. education, hospitals)  Government deregulation (e.g. no minimum wage)  Limited government (e.g. enforce contracts, secure boarders, expulsion of undesirables)  Supremacy of individual freedoms & accountability (e.g. look after self) Marxism?  What is Marxism?  How does it relate to geography?  How does it relate to cultural geography? Marxism  Marxist Geography o The study of geographical questions using the analytical insights, concepts & theories of Marxism o Critical of capitalism  Karl Marx o German-Jewish philospher (1818 – 1883) o Fredrich Engels (writing partner) o Marx lived primarily in London, UK o His most well-known works…  „The Communist Manifesto‟  „Das Kapital‟ o His ideas „challenged‟ the dominant & „normal‟ order o Major influence on architecture, arts, humanities, politics, science, social science Marx Economic Doctorine  Capitalism o Buying in order to sell again for profit o Profit  Is the Boss‟ profit…  „Surplus value‟  Boss „exploits‟ workers‟ surplus value as profit  Bourgeoisie class exploits proletarian class Class Struggle  Proletarian Revolution  Russia  Cuba  China  Why no revolution in Canada (yet)? o Classes are economic & political entities o Classes have varying degrees of wealth, resources & power o Classes occupy differing landscapes, spaces & places Canada’s Class Structure  The Capitalist Class or „Bourgeoisie‟ o 3% of Canadian population o 1000 people own 80% of all corporate stocks & bonds; property owners E.g. Brofmans, Westons, Eatons, Reichmanns, Blacks o Occupy a largely „invisible geography‟ of private yachts, jets, clubs, islands, boardrooms, homes o Largely insulated from public gaze  Middle Class or „Petty Bourgeoisie‟ o About 17% of Canadian population o Salaried employees (six figures) o Work place „autonomy‟  self-directed o Professional occupations: doctors, lawyers, CEOs, accountants, bank presidents, architects, upper-level administers o Wealth from intellectual property – knowledge, administration skills – not material property o Functionaries of capitalism: facilitate the realization of profits & to ensure social reproduction o Occupy the places most hope to achieve: employment with status and good pay, nice car, big home, exotic vacations  The Working Class or „Proletarian‟ o 80% of Canadian population o Largest & most occupationally diverse: semi-professional to minimum wage o Salaried or waged employees o Little or no work place autonomy o Most jobs need no university or college education o Many in denial: think they are middle class not working or „lower‟ class o Highly visible geography: „everyday‟ Class Myths  Myth of Class Equality o Working class think they are middle class o Most Canadians think we are all mostly middle class and thus largely classless o No need to revolt!  Myth of Class Mobility o Occupational mobility confused with class mobility o Working class mistakenly think they can move up a class o Opportunity for all: no need to revolt! o Yet, it‟s difficult to jump classes: education, talent, marriage, lottery  Myth of Class Gains o Proletarian material gains relative to upper classes E.g. DVD players, cell phone, new car, modest pay raise all relatively little compared to profits and material gains of higher classes o Trivial distractions keep revolt at bay: E.g. TV, sports, shopping, entertainment o Capitalists & middle class keep a low profile via private spaces and cost exclusions  Myth of the „Self-made Man‟ o Like „culture,‟ nobody lives in a vacuum: other people, groups & institutions influence, train, teach, assist us all o Equal opportunity for all does not exist: Born of different classes, parents, no choice in location of birth or childhood o Hard work is necessary but not sufficient to generate material wealth: holding three part-time, minimum wage jobs is hard work! Weaknesses of Capitalism  Individual interests over community interests  Profit over people & environment  Trade co-opts & dominates other cultures E.g. globalization = Americanization  „Natural‟ unemployment 3% - 15%  Exploits workers: don‟t share in big profits  Creates material wealth for owners  Excessive & unequal distribution of wealth  Excessive & unequal distribution of income How is Marxism Geographical?  Class relations are played out in space E.g. Because wealth is unevenly distributed among classes, class landscapes vary  Space „commodified‟, a marketable good E.g. Space is purchased, manufactured, sold  The environment is exploited as a means of production E.g. A forest is a resource to be used as material for commodification  Spatial division of labour by gender E.g. Only 5% of Canadian CEOs are women Historical Materialism  Cultural Materialism is a particular application of the Marxist approach of Historical Materialism to Cultural Studies, and consequently Cultural Geography  History is made by people engaged in class conflict in the pursuit of material needs: all history is class conflict  Historical Materialism is an approach to explaining social dynamics & causation which stresses the central significance of… o The Material Basis of social life & o The particular Social Relations through which social life is organized Material Basis  The economic basis  Combo of factors describing how society produces in order to survive  There are three principle factors… o Mode of production  Primitive community  Slave state  Feudal state  Capitalism  Socialist society o Means of production  Land  Labour  Capital o Relations of production  Class break down E.g. Strength & size of classes  Division of labour E.g. Who does what  Power E.g. Ability to force or convince people to behave in a certain manner The particular social relations through which social life is organized  Social relations – the way we interact and organize ourselves & society – are, according to Marx, dependent upon the material basis of a society Base Determines Superstructure  Base is the material conditions of existence  Superstructure is everything else: ideals, values, beliefs, fashion, education, religion, politics  „Superstructure determined by base‟ Idea of ‘Determinism’  According to Marx, everything is determined by the means, mode, and relations of production  Marx adhered to economic determinism!  Over simplistic  Cultural geographers reject determinism  „Base determines superstructure‟ not taken literally  The material and economic base of a society does „set limits upon‟, and does indeed „influence‟ culture, but cannot, in and of itself, explain the social and political conditions and processes of culture  Specific economic forces & conditions do help to explain culture  Differing groups & individuals occupy different places in the economy, which helps to explain cultural plurality Cultural Materialism  Cultural Materialism is a particular application of the Marxist approach of Historical Materialism to cultural studies, and consequently cultural geography  Economic base determines – sets limits upon, influences – superstructure  A cultural materialist approach views the production of culture as linked but not determined by the mode, means, and relations of production  Culture is more than the economy  Changing material or economic conditions – history for example – allows us to understand the „why‟ of cultures  Culture does reflect material conditions  Material conditions reflect culture My Point…  Economic class & material conditions are major enabling & constraining factors in the re/production of cultural identities & meanings  Power is in a large way a function of economic class Buying into Geographies of Consumption 9/9/2013 6:37:00 AM Introduction  Review Essay Explained  Popular culture & mass culture  Hegemony & resistance  Popular vs. elite cultures & spaces  Consumerism as a „site of struggle‟: Dominance & resistance at shopping malls Primary task today as always:  To read „consumerism‟ through the lens of power to see how the norms of consumerism are… o Constructed o Maintained o Resisted … In, over, through space  Whose interested are served/not served? Popular Culture & Mass culture  „Elite‟ Cultures o Thoughts, beliefs, values, meanings & identities held by the dominant intellectual & moral groups o Implies „high‟ or „best‟ culture o Intellectually stimulating o Morally exemplary o Refined o Special learning & experiences for a lucky minority of people o Somewhat artificial (formality of learning required)  „Official‟ Cultures o Thoughts, beliefs, values, meanings & identities held by the dominant socio- political groups o Implies „legitimate‟ culture o Socially approved o Politically condoned & supported o Special learning & experiences for a lucky minority of people o Somewhat artificial (formality of learning)  „Mass‟ Cultures o Thoughts, beliefs, values, meanings & identities that the dominant elite & official groups persuade the „masses‟ – most people - to accept in order to manipulate them in their own interests o Implies hegemonic influence o Implies an ideology o Negative implication  „Popular‟ Cultures (“pop culture pops up”) o Thoughts, beliefs, values, meanings & identities of a subordinate group – working classes – that arise in response to their experience of the material conditions of society o Negative implications to some (vulgar, trivial) o Positive implications to some (creative) o Political edge: reaction of working classes to Elites and Official cultures o Somewhat genuine (everyday, ordinary life) Hegemony & Resistance  Concept of „Popular‟ Cultures useful o Viewed as a means of resistance o Against hegemonic ideologies o Of the dominant elite & official cultures o Helps to understand how dominant meanings are contested by subordinate groups  Dominant groups use exclusionary closure  Subordinate groups use usurpationary closure  Culture is political: used to gain or suppress power & space ‘Containment’  The geographical manifestation of suppression  The act of keeping or containing certain cultures in certain locations or sites  Undermines power of the „other‟  If total suppression fails then „contain‟  Do what you like over there „out of sight‟ and „out of site‟ ‘Contested Space’  Where both the dominant Elite/Official cultures and the subordinate Popular cultures struggle for cultural acceptance or dominance  Examples: Native conditions, Where should religion icons be worn and where can they not (Quebec), Your body (tattoos, clothing, etc.) ‘Pop’ vs. Elite Cultures & Spaces  Separate Cultures o Arose due to differing responses to changing material conditions of existence during & since industrial revolution o Not entirely exclusive o Some overlap & exchange Features of the Industrial Revolution  Increased social & economic separation Middle vs. working class  Leisure separate from work: different spaces  Institutionalization of annual holidays  Segregation of leisure by social class  Changes in gendered division of labour Results of Industrial Revolution  Increased class & gender segregation  Different social groups had different experiences  Led to different acts, thoughts, values, beliefs, identities & meanings  Hence popular & elite cultures The shopping mall is a ‘contested space’  A site where both the dominant Elite/Official cultures and the subordinate Popular cultures struggle for cultural acceptance or dominance  The mall is simultaneously a site of Mass Culture and domination, and Popular Culture and resistance Consumerism as a ‘Site of Struggle’: Dominance & Resistance at Shopping Malls  Mall Origins, Evolution, & Proliferation o Shopping Mall  A shopping centre in which there is a specially designed pedestrian thoroughfare onto which shops front o First Mall in North America  Hard to say …1907 Baltimore?  Perhaps 1924 Kansas City?  Prior to 1950 o Few shopping malls o Elegant and ornate o High status, high income residential areas  First downtown shopping mall in North America  Wellington Square (now city plaza)  First shopping mall in Canada  in west Vancouver 
More Less

Related notes for Geography 3411A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.