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Geography 3422A/B
Milford Green

Gas 12/4/2012 8:09:00 AM Natural Gas  Canada has a capacity of 1.9 million barrels o Top 10 refinery capacity  US has the most capacity  China  Russia  Canada 10, 2.2% of the world’s refining capacity  Port Arthur, Texas – a major terminal for oil imports o $7 billion being spent to update refinery  Few refinery’s are able to handle heavy crude or high sulfur content  New discoveries in the US and elsewhere are changing the energy picture o Barnett Shale alone accounts for 7% of American gas supplies o Marcellus Shale – largest in the US o Haynesville Shale could hold some 200 trillion cubic feet of natural gas  The equivalent of 33 billion barrels of oil or 18 years worth of current US oil production o Shale and other reservoirs once considered un-exploitable (coal-bed methane and “tight-gas”) are now able to be tapped because of new technology  Countries with shale gas (just because the shale is there doesn’t mean it can be accessed) o China has the most gas available, hard to get it out o US is 5 thbut is able to get a lot out th o Canada is 6  Conventional gas reserves – Russia has the most with 47.5 cubic metres of conventional reserves o Countries typically have much more shale gas than conventional gas reserves  Poland has shale gas available and wants to go ahead with fracking  45% of the world’s recoverable natural gas reserves are unconventional comprised of shale, tight gas and coal-bed methane  Alberta accounts for 78% of Canada’s production  Know where the following countries on a map are o Russia o US o Iran o UK o Netherlands o Saudi Arabia o Algeria o Malaysia o Turkmenistan (North of Iran)  Natural gas consumption per capita o Russia o Canada o Saudi Arabia o US  90% of all new gas wells are fractured o Shale – dense, non-porous gas bearing rock o Won’t release gas until it is cracked open  Forum of Gas Exporting Countries o 14 members  The IEA expects overcapacity of gas pipelines and liquefied natural gas terminals to reach at least 250bn cubic metres by 2015  Gas demand o Asia o North America o Former Soviet Union o Middle East o Europe  Pipeline projects: o Mackenzie Gas Project  Approved by Canada’s National Energy Board  Needs a gas price of $6-$7 million BTU to be viable  Partners include Imperial Oil, Shell, ConocoPhillips and Exxon Mobil o The opening of the first two lines comprising Nord Stream greatly strengthens Russia’s hand in gas price negotiations with neighboring Ukraine  It by passes Ukraine where currently 80% of gas to Europe crosses o Nabucco pipeline  Under the agreement, Turkey and four EU countries (Austria, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria) agreed to allow the pipeline to transit their countries  Iraq will supply half of the gas needed o Pearl GTL  Unique project because of its cost, being built in Qatar  GTL – natural gas to liquid  The key is turning lower value natural gas into high- value products such as diesel, which is
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