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Geography 3422A/B Study Guide - Ibm Mainframe, Patent Office, Materials Science

Course Code
GEOG 3422A/B
Milford Green

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How Innovative is China Valuing Patents and The
Coming Tech-Led Boom 3/11/2013 10:50:00 AM
How Innovative is China Valuing Patents
China’s patent office received more applications than any other
country’s in 2011
In America and Europe, roughly half of patent applications are
lodged by foreigners
o This used to be true in China, but in the past few years filings
by locals have surged to three-quarters of the total
o Is this because China has suddenly become more innovative
or because government incentives have prompted people to
file lots of iffy patent applications, which the local patent
office has a tendency to approve
Patents in China are probably less valuable than those in the US or
o Hardly any Chinese inventors seek to patent their ideas
Mark Mills and Julio Ottino The Coming Tech-Led Boom
In January 1912, the United States emerged from a two-year
o Nineteen more followed, along with a century of phenomenal
economic growth
o Americans in real terms are 700% wealthier today
In January 2012, we sit again on the cusp of three grand
technological transformations with the potential to rival that of the
past century and all find their epicenters in America:
o Big data
Processing power and data storage are virtually free
A hand-held device has computing power that shames
the 1970s-era IBM mainframe
The Internet is evolving into the "cloud" a network of
thousands of data centers
o Smart manufacturing
We are just entering an era where the very fabrication
of physical things is revolutionized by emerging
materials science
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Engineers will soon design and build from the molecular
level, optimizing features and even creating new
materials, radically improving quality and reducing
3-D printing (direct-digital manufacturing) "printing"
parts and devices using computational power, lasers
and basic powdered metals and plastics
o The wireless revolution
Never before have a billion people been able to
communicate, socialize and trade in real time
The implications of the radical collapse in the cost of
wireless connectivity are as big as those following the
dawn of telegraphy/telephony
Coupled with the cloud, the wireless world provides
cheap connectivity, information and processing power
to nearly everyone, everywhere
Three features that most define America, and are essential for
unleashing the promises of technological change
o Youthful demographics
By 2020, America will be younger than both China and
the euro zone
Youth brings the ineluctable energy that propels
It is amplified by the experience of their elders, youth
and economic scale
o Dynamic culture
Culture cannot be changed or copied overnight; it is a
feature of a people that has high inertia
Ours is distinguished by incontrovertibly powerful
features like open-mindedness, risk-taking, hard work,
playfulness, new ideas, etc.
o Diverse educational system
American higher education eludes simple statistical
measures since its most salient features are flexibility
and diversity of educational philosophies and curricula
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