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History of Science
History of Science 2220

2220- Mid Term Exam Review Part 1: Hysteria - Causes: being a woman, being poor, being childless, anxiety, stress, social role differentiation, neglect of skin, overwork, nursing ill, bad air, poor diet - Egotism is the most prominent and the only constant moral symptom of hysteria - Symptoms: self-centered behaviour, egotism, loss of control - Describes a state of tension or excitement in which there is a temporary loss of control over the emotions - Workman: “female insanity is, in large proportion of cases, merely a reflex disturbance of the brain - Treatments: marriage, placebos, bleeding, blistering, and providing doses of opium, clitoridectomy, cauterization, threatening to burn them (psychological manipulation) -Massages and electricity for production of waste and nourishment of the nervous system also emerged To compensate for their in-ability to “cure” hysteria some physicians hypothesized that hysteria was not a real disease but feigned, which of course placed responsibility for lack of a cure on the patient - Treatment of female hysterics and insane women reveal the very close relationship between the ideological system and the medical treatment which was allotted to women -Medical opinion is particularly relevant because by the latter part of the century physicians were viewed by others and themselves as experts on the physical workings of the body - Biological determinism: Women overly presented as Hysterics -Instead of comparing ill women to healthy women, physicians compared them to healthy men. Thus the image of woman as the weaker sex was reinforced - The ability of many late nineteenth-century Canadian physicians to stress the gender connection in female insanity revealed as nothing else did the systematic nature of biological determinism as it applied to women - Believed the individual was an organic whole Personality= sexual, intellectual, spiritual, physical, biological, moral or mental were interrelated - Hysteria in men would be more than pathological; it would be the exhibition of deviant attributes -Men’s hysteria linked to business -Women’s insanity linked to domestic work - Women were not abnormal by physiological and regular only when compared to men they became pathological - Fact that women did not even have to be ill in order to be susceptible to insanity meant that, as with hysteria, the very nature of her body and the role she played in society were culprits - The fallacy lay not in linking body and mind together but in doing so primarily for only one gender -Narrowly defined social roles - Deviations became linked to obvious biological differences between the two sexes - 1901- McNaughton Jones textbook: “old maids” - 1880’s: Joseph Mortimer Granville-vibrator -Transition occurred from it being a medical device to a pleasure device around the 1920’s - Hysteria today is defined as a “form of psychoneurosis in which the individual converts anxiety created by emotional conflict into physical symptoms that have no organic basis Part 2: Pasteur Cholera - Causes: microorganisms that enter via the mouth and attack the intestines, feces in dust or water - Symptoms: eyes sink, skin wrinkles (capillaries, become black and blue), voice low and husky, nausea dizziness, violent vomiting and diarrhea grey liquid stool, extreme muscle cramps, pulse drop, lethargy - John snow- broad street pump, discovered the cause - Cholera was a mystery till the 1860`s, it was a turning point in medical history because it helped the doctors change the way they viewed disease The new sanitary infrastructure was a triumph of civil engineering - Treatments: past- no treatments (calomel)ineffective- opium, hot and cold baths, bloodletting and plugging of the anus - Present day- rehydration- fluids - Two main contradictory theories: Contagion theory and miasmic - Mortality rate between 50-60% - Flannel once believed to offset cholera that’s why the rich wore flannel head to toe st - 1 pandemic began in 1817 and last one was 1926 and it basically spread from London, to Russia to Canada to Mexico - Cholera represented the environmental evils of the industrial revolution and urbanization Impotence th th -Impotence- made the dictionary roughly 17 c, 7 century BC evidence found of men being concerned about their inability to perform sexually - Spells being put on a man to make him impotent - 19 century in England impotence because of masturbation - Present day impotence poor blood circulation - Impotence was socially or culturally constructed as well as leprosy- why? - Impotence was viewed more as a problem then a disease, as a society changes the way people view impotence is going to change - It will always be linked to male sexual performance to be able to make babies Impotence in the Ancient World - Social perception: Penetration proved man hood - Causes: spell; natural imblance - The Greeks ideal penis was small thin and pointed - dainty penis was more attractive/better a repopulating - Manliness= being in physique in pique physical condition essential for well being of the whole body; natural philosophy of medicine (if they are impotent they had imbalance) - Erect penis as tool sphere or ram; flaccid was a snake or rope - Treatment: arousing books or pictures and improvement in diet - Foods that resemble penis or testes, beer nuts, wine Impotence in Early Modern Europe 16 and 17 c th - Causes: witch craft - Social perception: Hilarious; Jokes about impotence being popularized thanks to the printing press - Fumbler, bunglar, weak doing man, good man do little, Johnny cannot - Samuel Pepys 1680s wrote pamphlets about men who could not perform - Women would look elsewhere for sexual satisfaction if husband could not perform Impotence in the age of reason 17 -18 c - By 18 c impotence went through two striking transformations; 1. Being described as a physiological problem 2. Private matter not something to be discussed publicly - Causes: physiological -masturbation (exhausted the body), nervousness (anxiety), caused by artificiality of society - Symptoms: pale skin, exhaustion - S.A.D. Tissot 1728-1797, most influential attacks on masturbation; 1760 he wrote a monograph specifically about orgasm - Treatment: would not be based on humor theory it would be based on the nervous origins of disease, don’t waste energy on sex - Men needed to follow a moderate balanced regime Nineteenth Cen. Manhood - Causes: exhaustion due to modern life; new technologies; neurasthenia-George Beard (physical manifestations over the stresses of modern life), overstimulation of genitals as result of man being over stimulated by environment - Symptoms: insomnia, depression, constipation, fatigue and impotence - Treatment: the electric belt (it represented electrotherapy) Modern Day -1920’s rise of endocrinology which is the study of glands and hormones - Legitimizes the scientific study of male sexual dysfunction - Impotence framed as a problem with man and wife in the context of two people -1970’s rise of second wave feminism - Forces a re-thinking of impotence due to women’s exposure of pleasure system (Orgasms) -2000’s rise of pharmaceutical companies to combat impotence (viagra) Tuberculosis ✤Single worst disease cultivated by major cities (not new but cities made worse) ✤ Causes: Person-to-person contact, spread of bacteria, dormant for weeks ✤ Symptoms: fever, night sweats and coughing up blood ✤ Haemotysis: coughing up blood ✤ Nicknamed consumption because victims were literally consumed ✤ Treatment: prolonged and systematic exposure to the elements (sanatorium) ✤ Generated healing metabolic reactions ✤75% were dead within five years of entering the sanatorium ✤ Social Perception: sanatorium functioned as a segregative institution, protecting society from the ‘degenerates within’ ✤ Koch-1882 discovers the TB bacillus ✤ Results: ✤These circumstances led the US to develop medically based immigration control ✤ Ellis Island: Between 1892-1954, over 12 million immigrants were medically inspected and interrogated (25 million entered) ✤ Eugenics as a “science” entered the picture in the early 20 century and changed immigration policy and racial prejudices ✤ Johnson-Reed Act (1924) introduced quotas by Coolidge to keep “America American” based on hardened racial prejudices ✤ Paris: cause of deaths in 40% of cases around 1815 ✤ At the end of WWI TB accounted for 1/6 of all deaths in France ✤The case of “Typhoid Mary” illustrated the new perception of the immigrants threat and the powers of public health (for story see p. 424) Electrotherapy - This idea dates back to 1700’s - Galvani vs Volta - Galvani- frogs legs and electricity experiment - Volta argued that electricity is not inherent in the creature but a result of the legs acting as a conductor - Volta creates the worlds first battery - Attention shifts to battery as potential for industry and is brushed aside until the 1840’s when its popularity re-emerges in the public spectrum - 1880‘s: Electro-therapeutists emerge - Also referred to as medical electricians - Medical opinion(+) vs. Public perception(-) - Electricity was the symbol of modernity in the nineteenth century - Ex. Electric belt - Electricity was the gateway to cure man by machine - 1880-1920 is the golden age of electrotherapy -Treatment from: - Electrotherapy office - Doctors office - Treatment involved passing electric current over body to recharge the body - During this time there were 2 forms of treatment that were the most popular -Treats anemia, gout, fever, etc -(1) Inc
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