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[1401E] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 118 pages long Study Guide!


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 1401E
Professor
William Acres
Study Guide
Final

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Western
History 1401E
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Industrialization
o Referred to as the industrial revolution
o Not planned
o New ways to produce (productivity, efficiency, etc.)
The Forces at work
Democratic growth
o Old demographic regime
Pre industrial society
High / Unstable mortality
People died young
Frequent episodes of high mortality (epidemics, disease, etc.)
State could provide more quarantine
Limited means to control fertility
Population did not have means to limit birth
Late marriage (most important factor)
o Older = Less children
High celibacy rates (rights of clergy)
Rise of fertility
o Rise of pre-marital birth
Rising and changing demand
o More people (growing population)
o More people to feed, more people to protect, etc.
o Emergence of middle class
o People were increasingly interested in fashion
Element of quality of demand
Low quality cheaper but requires another purchase in the future
o Addictions to goods (increases demands)
Colonial Wealth
o Need wealth to be invested in production
o Colonial trade
Brought a steady flow of wealth into Europe
Concentrated in hands of merchant dynasties/families
o Wealth increases = Demand increases
o Demand increases = Wealth increases
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The New Ways to do Things
Cotton revolution
o More people need to be clothed
o More people can afford more (nicer, warmer)clothes
o Spinning was too time consuming
Water-frame -
Spinning Jenny? -
Mule (Real spinning machine) Crompton
o Production increased
o Weaving advances came later
Production would increase again
Power revolution
o Newcomen had a working version of a steam engine
Newcomen steam engine
o 18th century 25 working steam engines
The Factory System
o Only way to make steam engine profitable is:
More machines
More people
More supervision
Factories merged
Tendency to cluster in regions (first in England)
A Warning!
o
Why The English Lead
o Britain was geographically favoured
Small compact
Little mountains/difficult terrains
Great water entries
Political stability
o Spared some more devastating conflicts
o More open to commercial imperatives than other European regions
o More accepting of social nobility
o More wealth / more purchasing power
o Naval power
Able to control the seas
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