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History 1401E Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Mercantilism, Gustav Iii Of Sweden, Tennis Court Oath

Course Code
HIS 1401E
Pierre Reynard
Study Guide

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History 1401 Tutorial 004 Study Notes
Figure 1: Do you ever feel like a dog in a kitchen?
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Nota Bene: this is by no means an exhaustive list if you can think of your own examples,
please feel free to do so. The sub-questions are designed to help you formulate a strong answer to
each question. Make sure you have two or three specific examples to talk about for each
question. Don’t memorize everything listed here, just pick your favourites and make a good,
detailed answer to the question out of them.
1. How were the most important institutions of the Old Regime (orders, state, church, judiciary,
and others) challenged by Enlightenment thinkers?
A. Name three Enlightenment thinkers:
Montesquieu Francis Bacon
Voltaire Wollstonecraft
Rousseau Descartes
Locke John Wesley
Adam Smith Diderot
Enlightened Rulers (Frederick I of Prussia, Joseph II from Austria, Catherine II of
B. Name three old regime institutions:
Church/ Theological traditions Estates/ class structure
Judicial system/ legal system Elitist education system
Feudal system Colonialism
Economy mercantilism Slavery
Monarchy Gender roles
C. Name three challenges to old regime institutions:
Abolitionist movement Questions about elitism in education
French Revolution Feminism
Challenges to the concept of Divine right Money/resources
American Revolution Bureaucracy/expanded governments
The interests of the nobility/clergy Lower class societies petitioning for change
Physical limits lack of communication
D. Name an author or a reading that touches on Enlightenment themes:
Hobbes discusses alternatives to monarchy, though still supporting monarchy
Wollstonecraft discusses problems with the education system and gender inequality
Burke discusses the failure of the French Revolution to turn Enlightenment questions
into lasting societal change.
Swift questions everything, even horseback riding.
2. The 18th century is often referred to as the Age of Absolutism. Yet most historians today argue
that it is important to remember that absolutist rulers were far from all-powerful. What limits
existed to their power?
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