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History 1401 Notes


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 1401E
Professor
Prof

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Reaction in France pg 374-394 Lecture for Oct. 22.2011. Personal Notes.
The National Convention
- Disorganized French army won battle over Prussia thus protecting Paris
- Frech extended territory over Austrian Netherlands, rhine, swiss land
- Revolution spreak in the wake of the successful French armies
- Infant French Revolution was at war against all Europe ; saved by the weakness of the coalition
of nations
- In the Conevtion the leaders Jacobins were splitting
- New political group emerged: montagnards; represented Paris and most were of provincial birth
- Popular revolutionarists- sans culottes. They feared the convention was too moderate and
demanded direct democracy.
- King convicted of treason and guillotined on a vote of 361-360.
- Everyone now looked to the mountain wing of jacobins to stop any royalist movements.
Background to terror
- France started to loose territory and enemies threatened to invade France
- Economy suffering
- May 31, 1793 Commune of Paris, under pressure from sans cullote assembled a host of
demonstrators and insurrectionists who invaded the convention and forced the arrest of the
Girondon leaders(considered too modest).
- Mountain now ruled in the convention
- The convention was attacked and rebelled against by peasants who were supported by royalists
and emirgres.
The Program of the Convention
-aimed to protect ideals of F.R and to stop counterrevolutionaries
- to repress counterrevolution, convention set up the the Committee of public safety
- Convention+ Committee of Public Safety set up the ``Reign of Terror`` designed to protect the
Revolutionary Republic from internal enemries
- to conduct the government in the midst of the war emergency the Committee of Public Safety
operated as a joint dictatorship and war cabinet.
- committee called on all able bodied men to defend nation against foreign enemies
- in 1794, abolished slavery in French colonies (St. Domingue) however reinstated by Napoleon. Finally
abolished until 1848.
- committee launched movement of Dechristianization and created a new republican calendar.

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-Dechristianization contributed to the development of the cult of reason, which sprang all over France at
the end of 1793.
- Robespierre disliked the Dechristianization movement, believed it would aleniate the masses from the
Republic and ruin such sympathy that was held for Rev.
- Committee ordered the toleration of peaceable Cathilic, and in June 1794 Robespierre introduced the
cult of the Supreme Being, a deistic natural religion, declared the recognization of God as existent and
the immorality of the soul.
- by spring of 1794, the French Republic possessed an army of 800,000men; largest ever. Continued to
win Revolutionary military victories. Won the battle of Fleurus in Belgium.
- military success made French less willing to put up with the dictatorial rule and economic
regimentation of the Terror.
- Robespierre and the Commite antagonized all other political parties
- working class radicals of Paris also no longer supported him.
A group in the convention obtained the ``outlawing`` of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794); he
was guillotined along with fellow associates
The Thermidorian Reaction
- The terror subsided
- Convention reduced powers of the Committee and closed Jacobin club.
- Uprisings broke out. Insurrection of Prairal in the Year III when a mob all but dispersed the
Convention by force. Gave a taste of modern social revolution.
- Triumphant element consisted mostly of the bourgeoise class which had guided the revolution
since the constituent assembly
- Some people got rich over the revolution ( made money by wartime gov contracts or had
profited by inflation or by buying up former church lands at bargain prices)
- Thermidorians were still insistent on democracy . Produced the constitution of the year III,
which went into effect at the end of 17595
The Constitutional Republic: The Directory, 1795- 1799
The Weakness of the Directory
-first formally constituted French Republic, known as the Directory, only lasted four yeas
- new constitution also impacted new territoeis (eg., Belgium), commited to successful
expansion

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- Republic called the Directory governs France and sends armies to spread revolutionary
republicanism in Europe.
-Directory= hands of substantial property owners
-constituonal republic was dependent on military protection to put down Royalist mob. Led by
Napoleon.
The Political Crisis of 1797
- In March 1797, the first free election held under republican backings
- -republicans feared a resurgence of royalism
- English was in a horrific state of economic and financial depression and were wanting
peace.
- Coupe dèestate of Fructidor(Sept 4, 1797)-previous elections annulled . After coup gov
broke off negotiations with ENg
- With Austria signed treaty of Campo FOrmio incorpating Napoleons ideas. Treaty
recognized French control of Belgium , left bank of the Rhine, and the French dominated
Cisalpine Republic in Italy. In return, Bonaparte allowed Austrians to annex venice and
most of mainland Venetia.
- French revolutionary republicanism spread rapid through much of Italy, creating new
republics with classical names.
The Coup d'Etat of 1799: Bonaparte
-directory turned into ineffective dictatorship
- second coalition formed by Austria, Russa and UK and there was once again general war
b/w France and second coalition.
- Bonaparte led the coup where armed soldiers drove the legislators from the chambers.
- Proclaimed a new form of republic, which Bonaparte entitled the Consulate. It was headed
by three consuls, with Bonaparte as the first consul.
The authoriatarian Republic: The Consulate, 1799-1804
- Napoleon guided France under a form of enlightened despotism.
- Set up new constitution which provided for universal male suffrage
- First Consul made all decisions and ran the state
- Obtained peace. In Feb 1801 after defeating Austrians he got them to sign the treaty of
Luneville, in which the terms of Campo Formio were confirmed.
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