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Final

Exam Study Notes.doc


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 1401E
Professor
Prof
Study Guide
Final

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Event Dates Description Key People Key Terms
Enlightenment 1715-
1800
The Enlightenment was a period where
European intellectuals rejected tradition and
embraced science and reason. Their ideas
threatened the established order
and widened the gap between religion and
accepted scholarly knowledge. The philosophes
also set the stage for a series of revolutions that
engulfed North America and Europe and formed
the intellectual foundation of modern Western
society.
Hobbes
Locke
Rousseau
Enlightened-
Absolutism
Glorious
Revolution
Individualism
Social Contract
French
Revolution
1789-
1799
October Days helped to secure the
Revolution. National Assembly now
concentrated on creating a constitution. King
and the National Assembly now more exposed
to organized pressure from below. It also
demonstrated that popular violence could have
major political effects.
Louis XVI
National
Assembly
Bourgeoisie
(Third Estate)
Tennis Court
Oath
Reign of Terror 1793-
1794
Robespierre feared a counter revolution. Terror
becomes an official method used by the
government and a portable guillotine is used to
stop “revolutionaries/ traitors” . Citizens become
tired of revolution and look for someone to
provide stability.
Robespierre Guillotine
San-Coullets
Committee for
public safety
Napoleon Political
Career:
1799-
1815
(where
he is
finally
exiled)
*French Revolution marked a significant break
with the past.
Transformed the meaning of political change.
*Good intentions were not enough on their own
to transform humanity. *Napoleon’s
contradictory legacy – Subverted key elements
the revolution – Also preserved and exported its
ideals. *Lasting images – Popular revolution –
Charismatic leader
Abbe Sieyes
Napoleon
Napoleonic Code
Nationalism
Congress of
Vienna
1814-
1815
conference of the European powers in which they decided how to repartition Europe
after defeating Napoleon. The Congress was one of the most massive and significant
treaties ever, and it created a Europe wherein the balance of power prevented a
Europe-wide war for a hundred years.
Settled the Napoleonic Wars and shaped much of the 19th Century • First attempt to
solve international problems through conferences rather than warfare – No general
European war from 1815-1914 • Not well regarded in the 19th century
Liberalism 1800’s Liberalism affirmed all the basic beliefs of the Enlightenment such as individual
rights, constitutional government and poplar sovereignty. It appealed to the rising
middle class, who were prospering from commerce and industry and who wanted
political power along with their growing wealth and confidence. Liberals had faith
that history was on their side, that liberalism, like progress was inevitable and that
the forces they opposed were those of the past. That optimism gave them strength to
fight against the forces of reaction and conservative tradition and rally to protect
their gains.
Industrial
Revolution
1780-
1850
The Industrial Revolution literally changed all aspects of
European life. It altered the ways in which people worked, what
they could buy, how they lived their lives, where they lived their
lives, and where they stood on the social ladder. The growing
tendency of the middle and working classes to view themselves
Capitalism
Laissez Faire
Liberalism
Socialism
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