History 1401E Study Guide - Final Guide: Suggestibility, Edwin Chadwick, Eurocentrism

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13 Apr 2012
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History 2413 (Berest): 2012 Final Exam Rough Notes
Part I.
1. Is it true to argue that 19th century modernity in Western Europe had been a civilizing force? Discuss
ways in which leisure, recreation and public consciousness had changed by the turn of the century.
2. Discuss the impact of nationalist ideology on European modernity. (See Lecture 12 Slides)
“Nationalism is an ideological movement for attaining and maintaining the autonomy, unity
and identity of an existing or potential nation. Nationalism often predates nation, even if it
pretends that the nation exists.” p. 108
Paradoxes of modern nationalism:“There is something terrible in the sacred love of the
fatherland. This love is so exclusive that it sacrifices everything to the public interest; without
pity, without fear, with no respect to human individual.” (quoted from Perry, 234)
French revolution and Napoleonic invasions: raised expectations and sense of national
distinctiveness
Nationalist: creates sense of belonging for all, seen as a new religion, unity, a sense of
excitement (created by the media), sense of a common mission among all classes
3. Discuss the paradoxical consequences of World War I.
First days of war: people were excited, enthusiastic, caught up in emotions of a crowd
(glorification of war, propaganda, nationalism &imperialism etc)
Immediate causes: Slavic nationalism and the Balkan crisis
Trench warfare: mass casualties, death, injury, PST etc
Arms Race (Zero Sum Game)- increasing scientific advances, but they were very harmful: use of
poison gases (chlorine, mustard gas)
1917- mass food shortages, growing discontent towards war
Extreme debt
Extensive damage to infrastructure ( e.g. 1/3 french farmland was now wasteland, over 1million
buildings and 6,000 bridges lost)
Need to retool factories for regular/-non-military production
Paradoxes of welfare liberalism: restrictions on individual freedoms during and after the war
However, war had a liberating impact on women: increased employment opportunities, the
right to vote 1918,
Psychological impacts of the war: the age of cultural pessimism (Spengler), escapism
Paradoxical nature of the Great War: changes instead of status quo
Overall effect of war:
validating & reinforcing modernist ideas/practices -
Women’s emancipation, welfare capitalism, democratization of society & culture
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4. Why did the Soviet Union collapse? Discuss the long-term and the immediate causes of the collapse.
Is it true to argue that Soviet modernity had been doomed for failure?
* See lecture slides “Perestroika & Collapse of the Soviet Union*
Contributing policies: Perestroika “reconstricton”-> glasnost (openness), greater freedoms of
speech and press
Deepening economic reforms in the 1980s, towards a socialist market and mixed economy
Relaxed government control
Years of focus on military strengthening left the economy in a state of stagnation
Leader (Gorbachev): instituted greater political and social freedoms, created open atmosphere
of criticism against communist regime
Collapsed in 1991
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Soviet_Union_(1982%E2%80%931991)
History 2413 Final Exam- Identification Questions
Sputnik:
First artificial satellite put into earth’s orbit (Soviet Union 1957)
Ignited the US-USSR“Space Race”, increased political, military, scientific and technological
developments- a larger part of the cold war (the American’s rival had gained ground)
Spurred US to work on technology in order to regain the lead
Unnerving reactions from US civilians- feared that this meant Soviets had the ability to launch
ballistic missiles carrying nuclear weaponry from Europe to America (mirrors modern issues of
nuclear warfare: N. Korea, middle east etc.)
Vladimir Putin:
Second president of the Russian Federation (also the current president)
Overseen return of political stability and economic success in Russia (ending the crisis of the
1990s)
Restored bureaucratic order
The Berlin Wall (Symbol of the cold war)
After world war two, the allied powers divided conquered Germany into 4 zones, same was
done with the capital of Berlin
Relationship between Soviets and other allied powers disingrated, occupation of Germany
became competitive and aggressive
West (US,Britain, France) versus east(Soviet Union), democracy versus communism
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