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History 2125F/G Study Guide - Final Guide: Deskilling, Scientific Management, Elliot Lake

Course Code
HIS 2125F/G
Peter Krats
Study Guide

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2125 Exam Notes 1
Definition: A principal raw material or commodity grown or produced in a region.
Timber is a very important staple: Britain needs our timber to produce ships.
oSquare timber = huge pieces of timber.
oTimber is the first Canadian industry to come inland.
oTimber worked in winter: snow made it easier to transport.
oRequired skills to cut down trees, these people called tree fellers.
Other skill: teamsters to make routes, deal with horses.
oSquare timber becomes DOMINANT EXPORT of BNA from 1790s to 1860s.
oTimber required the production of many ships to transport: we made biggest
ships in the world like Marco Polo and Blue Nose.
Maritimes: wind water wood works well. Most prosperous area, crucial to staples
Employers move from paternalism deskilling and depersonalization.
Bigger works = depersonalization.
Many people do simple, repetitive work.
Combination Act: can’t openly complain about work.
Master Servant Act: complete control over people.
Railway employers survive, they have skills and status.
Mercantilism: ruled by England, who favor the English speakers.
oRegional economies.
Attitudes toward labor: unions are illegal.
Gov. protects property.
Encouraged infrastructure, road development.
Railways, communications: mail.
Built canals, because business people said they would lose their business to NY.
oWasn’t big enough, gov. made it bigger.
Lesson: go to gov. for infrastructure.
Army bills introduced, led people to believe that gov.-backed $ system could work.
Bank of New Brunswick was first bank to be given gov. approval.
Soon, gov. became involved in making money.

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2125 Exam Notes 2
19th century: government helps out a lot.
oReciprocity Treaty of 1854
oMoney for railway development
Guarantee Act
Municipal Loan Fund Act
English speakers are favored after conquest, so French speakers
oWanted to prove they were smart.
oBegan growing more wheat but couldn’t compete with USA. So they sold
wheat in the local market.
First large employer: Red Path
York becomes Toronto.
Began using canals, steamboats, to transport instead of roads.
Free trade (FT) was in discussion. Was not a new idea.
Begin selling more locally and to USA: requires new infrastructure.
oBNA people not happy, burn down parliament building in Montreal.
We have big boats and fish, sell this!
Capital cities benefit the most.
Mercantilist system inherited from Brits.
Timber and other staples shipped to England.
Trade relationship with USA.
Our infrastructure was geared toward England, so we had to restructure this when we
began trading with USA and locally.
Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 with USA this was advantageous to BNA.
USA is competition for Canadian businesses.
No unions at this time.
New staples introduced: mining (nickel and other minerals), pulp and paper, hydro.
oRequire new technology.

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2125 Exam Notes 3
Most jobs paid very badly, were dangerous, expensive, etc.
oPeople working these jobs often lived in slums.
30 times as many work fatalities as today.
Overly long shifts.
All leads to beginning of unions.
Change: we’re a country, no longer colonies.
Continuity: we’re still doing staples.
Independence 1867.
Two levels of gov. emerge: provincial and federal.
Federal gov. will now issue money.
Took people’s land to expand Canada.
Built Intercolonial railway to Maritimes so they would not leave Canada.
Lends a tax break to construction of CPR (1885).
oCPR gives Macdonald a lot of credit.
oFuture governments all want to build railroads!
Gov. goes into debt from all the railway construction.
Much advertising in Europe to increase immigration to prairies.
Explosion westward due to railways, gov. and enticing farmers.
Economy has big expansion during this time, but country is basically a colony to serve
Montreal and Toronto.
Allows business to do whatever, such as price fix. Gov. well aware of slums but sides
with business.
Many big mergers, 40 companies become 2.
The idea to control chain from RM to FG.
Department stores become huge.
“An era of less making more.
Corporations have same rights as citizens, took advantage of this.
Taylorism comes into play.
Belief that exploiting the worker was necessary.
Had to adjust to beginning of unions.
European immigrants arrive, Canada becomes more multicultural.
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