Started in 1819 in book about brazil, origins probably much older west africa. Original zombie = personification of misery of african slaves on plantation of haiti. 1791-1804 slaves of haiti rose up and liberated themselves created first independent black republic in the world in haiti: problem for whites bc everywhere else they seemed to be running the show, except in. Transform haiti into a culture of violence and superstition, play up zombie history and begin to create stories of haiti involving cannibalism and human sacrifice. Zombie becomes combined with the religion of voodoo. Early 1800s voodoo is a form of religion in which witch doctors (bokor) animate corpses to use as their workers recycling of the zombie myth: still zombies are unfree, controlled by bokor. Whites use zombies to create a terrifying society of the undead who roam the streets. Theories of international politics and zombies by daniel w. drezner uses zombies to analyze international politics and relations.