Study notes American history.doc
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Columbian Exchange: the biological encounter of the old and new worlds. Europeans
brought to the new world disease, horses, cattle, sheep, swine, chicken, coffee, sugar cane
with them and brought back to Europe with them; corn, potatoes, beans, tomatoes, squash,
chocolate, canoes, hammocks. Overall the exchange of crops enriched human diets and
made possible enormous population growth.
Gettysburg Address: Speech made my Abraham Lincoln after the battle of Gettysburg.
Within this two minute speech A. L. invoked the principles of the declaration of
independence and argued that the American Civil war was not simply a fight for the union
but for freedom the freedom of all men who are “created equal”. He states that the living
have a duty to the dead and the founders of the nation to ensure that the principles of the
declaration of independence are achieved and that a government of the people, by the
people, for the people survives.
New Deal: This was the name of the economic plan implemented by Franklin D. Roosevelt
during the Great Depression of the 1930s. This new deal involved more government
involvement in the economy and was made up of different laws, agencies, public work
programs, business regulation, and securing banks. This new deal benifited working
people, small farmers and others at the low end of the economic scale.
New Deal Coalition: FDR builds a basis of support for the democratic party including;
farmers, union members, northern blacks, and women. (all who benefited from New Deal
relief efforts) This will form the backbone for the Democratic party until the 1960s.
McCarthyism: accusation of disloyalty, treason etc. without evidence. McCarthy was a
politician that accused several democrats of being communist during the 1950s. Many
middle Americans believed McCarthy’s accusations as they offered an explanation to the
complexities of the Cold war. Why else would the Soviets be such a threat if not for traitors
within government employees. There is a high level of paranoia during this ‘Red Scare’
(Korean Stalemate) There is growing unhappiness with Democratics in power and
Eisenhower is elected (a republican)
Lend Lease: A program to supply war materiel to the cash strapped British during the
Second World War. This was an attempt to appease international relations while remaining
out of the war.
Great Society: Idea/ Campaign of Lyndon B. Johnson. He ran on a campaign where there
would be “an end to poverty and racial injustice” a place where “Children could enlarge
their talents and people renew their contact with nature.” Once elected in 1965 (after being
president after JFK’s assassination) he implemented a war on poverty, social security,
Medicare. This great society improved the lives of many.
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