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History 2403E Study Guide - Final Guide: Tercio, Star Fort, Spanish Golden Age

Course Code
HIS 2403E
Jeffrey Temple
Study Guide

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Warfare in Early Modern Europe
Frequency of war
o HRE involved in 25 wars
o England in 29 wars
o France in 34 wars
o Spain in 36 wars
o 16th century experienced less than 10 years of complete peace
o 17th century experienced less than 4 years of complete peace
Military Expenditures of Early Modern states
o In 17th century
At peace: 75% of annual revenue on military
At war: 90% of annual revenue on military
Growth of aggregate military numbers
o 1600s: wars could be fought with 20,000 men
o 1700s: armies grew to over 200,000 men
o Aggregate numbers of armies reflect nations powers in Europe
Spanish army grows exponentially after the unification of
Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella and Spanish golden age
Spanish army shrinks when decline begins
Similarly Dutch army size growth reflected the Dutch golden
=More army means more power
o Who is contributing to this growth?
Minor source
Forced conscription
Appeals to patriotism and nationalism
Enlisting criminals
Coercing drunks
Easier to train musket men than longbow men
Major source: Mercenaries
Mercenary captains raise regiments and hire
themselves out to the highest bidder for a campaign
season or a conflict
Growth of destruction of weaponry
o Artillery
Gunpowder arrives in Europe in the 13th century
Development of metal cannons
Early cannons were flawed due to friction from loading
with too large projectiles- very dangerous
Despite being dangerous
Better cannons begin to be cast in the early modern
Early cannons were too heavy too be mobile, but made
up for this with new power to destroy strong
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