Exam Review.docx

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15 Apr 2012
Key Ideas
Orwell, Churchill,
- Wealth and status important to success in education; how you were
- Late 19th century Britain still class-based
- Status didn’t make one exempt form education, needed it to
advance further through society, but it was a lot easier
- How much money you have determines your quality of education
- Entering phase of meritocracy
- Fundamental part of classical liberalism is constant improvement of
people; this is done through education
Russian Reform
Lectures, Tolstoy,
Empress Catherine
- Revelation after the Crimean War that they weren’t an equal footing
industrially and politically with the rest of Europe
- Aspiring to be like western Europe
- Ex. in Tolstoy aristocrats have English/French expressions which
show their status in society; superficial
- Started the Duma, comparable to the House of Commons, but more
aristocratic (House of Lords, German High Parliament, etc.) to
provide regional representation
- Establishment of the Zemstvo (House of Commons, local council of
nobles), like what the French had before the Revolution, allows
more local authority, Russia empire becoming decentralized
- Abolition of serfdom resulted in the creation of the Mirs in 1861
(communal land holdings)
- Start look to increase power through imperialism
Michael Burns, Emile Zola
- Deeply embedded anti-Semitic feelings in western Europe of the
19th century
- Also shows liberalism of the time, Dreyfus was able to be a citizen
and had a position of power despite being Jewish
- An emancipation citizen able to participate in a rank that was
previously closed to all but the aristocrats
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- Shows changing power relations in the state
- Similar to issues seen in Church and Orwell; aristocrats couldn’t
simply walk into their position anymore
- Military structure changing, Dreyfus a threat to the traditional order-
infestation of non-aristocrat into upper ranks of society
- Result of opportunities such as education that were newly opened to
those outside of the aristocracy
- Jews coming out of pockets of isolation
- Time of print media, shows how the government is trying to control
the population in new ways
German Reform
Bismarck, Anderson,
- German unification
- [see education]
- Now have elections, however they were corrupt
- Relates to Dreyfus, shift of power- age of print media, people
entering into large discussion of politics; threat of established order
- People that are being voted in form the new powerbase,
representatives of the people, can now fight on the behalf of the
common citizens
- To preserve power aristocrats are corrupting the voting methods
through intimidation [see Dreyfus, education]
- Nipperdey, talks about the education reform, importance of higher
education and the opening up of educational opportunities for more
levels of society beyond aristocrats
- Russian reforms, Orwell, Dreyfus all related
- Non-aristocrats able to better themselves
German Workers
Popp, Adams, Lotz
- Long, hard work, exhausting, consumes all energy
- Atmosphere is degrading, favoritism, harassment, etc.
- All time is spent working, no time left to get an education or improve
yourself; stuck in the workforce, held by the money system
- Becomes an obsession to constantly look for money, needed for
every aspect of life
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