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History 1401 Notes

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History
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History 1401E
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Prof

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Reaction in France pg 374394 Lecture for Oct 222011 Personal NotesThe National ConventionDisorganized French army won battle over Prussia thus protecting ParisFrech extended territory over Austrian Netherlands rhine swiss landRevolution spreak in the wake of the successful French armiesInfant French Revolution was at war against all Europesaved by the weakness of the coalition of nationsIn the Conevtion the leaders Jacobins were splitting New political group emerged montagnards represented Paris and most were of provincial birthPopular revolutionarists sans culottes They feared the convention was too moderate and demanded direct democracy King convicted of treason and guillotined on a vote of 361360 Everyone now looked to the mountain wing of jacobins to stop any royalist movementsBackground to terrorFrance started to loose territory and enemies threatened to invade France Economy sufferingMay 31 1793 Commune of Paris under pressure from sans cullote assembled a host of demonstrators and insurrectionists who invaded the convention and forced the arrest of the Girondon leadersconsidered too modest Mountain now ruled in the conventionThe convention was attacked and rebelled against by peasants who were supported by royalists and emirgresThe Program of the Convention aimed to protect ideals of FR and to stop counterrevolutionaries to repress counterrevolution convention set up the the Committee of public safetyConvention Committeeof Public Safety set up the Reign of Terror designed to protect the Revolutionary Republic from internal enemries to conduct the government in the midst of the war emergency the Committee of Public Safety operated as a joint dictatorship and war cabinet committee called on all able bodied men to defend nation against foreign enemiesin 1794 abolished slavery in French colonies St Domingue however reinstated by Napoleon Finally abolished until 1848committee launched movement of Dechristianization and created a new republican calendarDechristianization contributed to the development of the cult of reason which sprang all over France at the end of 1793 Robespierre disliked the Dechristianization movement believed it would aleniate the masses from the Republic and ruin such sympathy that was held for Rev Committee ordered the toleration of peaceable Cathilic and in June 1794 Robespierre introduced the cult of the Supreme Being a deistic natural religion declared the recognization of God as existent and the immorality of the soulby spring of 1794 the French Republic possessed an army of 800000men largest ever Continued to win Revolutionary military victories Won the battle of Fleurus in Belgium military success made French less willing to put up with the dictatorial rule and economic regimentation of the Terror Robespierre and the Commite antagonized all other political parties working class radicals of Paris also no longer supported him A group in the convention obtained the outlawing of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor July 27 1794 he was guillotined along with fellow associates The Thermidorian ReactionThe terror subsidedConvention reduced powers of the Committee and closed Jacobin club Uprisings broke out Insurrection of Prairal in the Year III when a mob all but dispersed the Convention by force Gave a taste of modern social revolution Triumphant element consisted mostly of the bourgeoise class which had guided the revolution since the constituent assembly Some people got rich over the revolutionmade money by wartime gov contracts or had profited by inflation or by buying up former church lands at bargain pricesThermidorians were still insistent on democracyProduced the constitution of the year III which went into effect at the end of 17595The Constitutional Republic The Directory 1795 1799 The Weakness of the Directoryfirst formally constituted French Republic known as the Directory only lasted four yeasnew constitution also impacted new territoeis eg Belgium commited to successful expansion Republic called the Directory governs France and sends armies to spread revolutionary republicanism in EuropeDirectory hands of substantial property ownersconstituonal republic was dependent on military protection to put down Royalist mob Led by NapoleonThe Political Crisis of 1797In March 1797 the first free election held under republican backingsrepublicans feared a resurgence of royalism English was in a horrific state of economic and financial depression and were wanting peaceCoupe destate of FructidorSept 4 1797previous elections annulledAfter coup gov broke off negotiations with ENgWith Austria signed treaty of Campo FOrmio incorpating Napoleons ideas Treaty recognized French control of Belgiumleft bank of the Rhine and the French dominated Cisalpine Republic in Italy In return Bonaparte allowed Austrians to annex venice and most of mainland Venetia French revolutionary republicanism spread rapid through much of Italy creating new republics with classical namesThe Coup dEtat of 1799 Bonaparte directory turned into ineffective dictatorshipsecond coalition formed by Austria Russa and UK and there was once again general war bw France and second coalition Bonaparte led the coup where armed soldiers drove the legislators from the chambersProclaimed a new form of republic which Bonaparte entitled the Consulate It was headed by three consuls with Bonaparte as the first consulThe authoriatarian Republic The Consulate 17991804Napoleon guided France under a form of enlightened despotism Set up new constitution which provided for universal male suffrageFirst Consul made all decisions and ran the stateObtained peace In Feb 1801 after defeating Austrians he got them to sign the treaty of Lunevillein which the terms of Campo Formio were confirmed
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