History 1401 Exam Preparation
15. Karl Marx once observed that History always repeats itself, the first time is tragedy
and the second is farce. He was thinking about Napoleon I and Napoleon III.Are there
other examples of authoritarian rulers arising from revolutionary circumstances,
seemingly reversing the direction in which history appears to be moving? If so, why has
Karl Marx once observed that History always repeats itself, the first time is tragedy and
the second is farce. Though Marx was referring to Napoleon I and Napoleon III. The
pattern of authoritarian rulers arising from revolutionary circumstances has been
consistent throughout history, most recognizably in the Spanish Civil War and the
Russian Revolution. While the details and individual irritants and causes of these
instances differ, the roles of class struggle and _____ remain consistent.
• "Demonstrate how the class struggle in France created circumstances and
relationships that made it possible for a grotesque mediocrity to play a hero's part.
• History of class struggles
Spanish Civil War
• OnApril 14 , 1931, after decades of political instability between monarchies and
dictatorships in Spain, KingAlfonso XII was peacefully abdicated and the Second
Spanish Republic was formed . It had been half a century since progressive
political forces had been in power since the very brief first republic of 1873, and
therefore there was a sense of urgency when implementing the immensely
ambitious republican program of structural reform.
• All republican reforms were intended to increase economic democracy in order to
establish a political democracy, as well as achieve a fundamental redistribution of
social and economic power in Spain
• In 1936, Franco and a group of Spanish military leaders conspired to overthrow
the Popular Front led Republican government. The rebellion was only half
successful and evolved into a civil war, during which Franco emerged as the
leader of the Nationalists. He was able to secure the support of Italy and Germany
while integrating the many heterogeneous rebel factions into the Movimiento
• Franco’s victory meant an attempt to achieve economic modernization without
political democracy and the cultural pluralism represented by the republic.
• Longest ruling dictator in European history (close to 40 years)
• Lenin- The founder of the Bolshevik Party, organizer of the October Revolution,
1 and the first leader of the Soviet Union. Lenin spent most of the early twentieth
century living in exile in Europe (primarily Britain and Switzerland). He was a
devout follower of Marxism and believed that once a Communist revolution took
place in Russia, Communism would spread rapidly around the world. Though not
involved in the February Revolution, he returned to Russia inApril 1917 and
orchestrated the October Revolution that turned Russia into a Communist state.
• Starting in the early 1700s with Tsar Peter the Great, the ruling Romanov family
increasingly modeled itself on, and intermarried with, the great royal families of
Europe. Over time, the Romanovs estranged themselves from the Russian people
and progressively undermined the legitimacy of their own rule.At the same time,
Russians had more exposure to the culture and happenings of Europe than ever
before, and many were inspired by the various democratic and socialist
movements taking place there.As dissent grew among the Russian people, the
monarchy responded with intolerance and by imposing heavy penalties upon all
who openly criticized or resisted the government.Aseries of military failures,
starting with the Crimean War in the mid-1800s, and continuing with the Russo-
Japanese War of 1904–1905 and finally World War I, further damaged the image
of Russia’s leaders.
• By the early twentieth century, Russia was thus ripe for a revolution. Never in
Russian history had so many political organizations existed at the same time.
Moreover, many of these organizations were operating outside of Russia itself,
where they could plan freely, raise money, and better educate themselves on
contemporary political philosophy.
17. During the period covered by this course there have been several attempts
(and failures) to produce a general peace – 1815, 1919, 1945, and 1991. Which was
the greatest success? Which the most dismal failure?
• This question is kind of an opinion question, and so I outlines the general
successes and failures of each treaty which sould be outlined in the Essay. I
personally think the peace of Paris was the biggest failure and the establishment
of the European Union was the greatest success.
1815- (peace of Vienna)
• Produced minimum resentments in • Gave no satisfaction to nationalists
France (the late enemy accepted the or democrats and even some
new arrangements) liberals
• Ended almost two centuries of •
European conflicts over the control
of the colonial territories inAsia
and the Americas
• The control of Poland and the
Austro- Prussian dualism in
Germany was smoothed over for 50 years (previously sources of
conflict in the 18 century)
• With past issues the treaty was
relatively successful, but paved the
way for future issues.
1919-The Peace of Paris
• The victors of The First World WarAssembled in France to divide the world
• Treaties were signed with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey and Germany
(Treaty of Versailles)
• Led by Woodrow Wilson (American president
• League of nations
• As the intention of the treaty of Versailles was to put an end to any German
manace, taking into future events, the treaty greatly failed.
• The traty with Germany was either too severe or too lenient depending on the
o It was too severe to conciliate and not severe enough to destroy
o Implemented clauses that the allies were later unwilling to enforce
o Countries in general (included allied forces) were largely unhappy with
the treaty, feeling that either the spoils of war were unevenly divided, or
that the losers of war were not being sufficiently punished.
o As a result of the French feeling ripped