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History 1401 Exam Preparation.docx

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Western University
History 1401E

History 1401 Exam Preparation15 Karl Marx once observed that History always repeats itself the first time is tragedy and the second is farce He was thinking about Napoleon I and Napoleon III Are there other examples of authoritarian rulers arising from revolutionary circumstances seemingly reversing the direction in which history appears to be moving If so why has this happened Karl Marx once observed that History always repeats itself the first time is tragedy and the second is farce Though Marx was referring to Napoleon I and Napoleon III The pattern of authoritarian rulers arising from revolutionary circumstances has been consistent throughout history most recognizably in the Spanish Civil War and the Russian Revolution While the details and individual irritants and causes of these instances differ the roles of class struggle andremain consistentDemonstrate how the class struggle in France created circumstances and relationships that made it possible for a grotesque mediocrity to play a heros partHistory of class strugglesSpanish Civil WarthOn April 14 1931 after decades of political instability between monarchies and dictatorships in Spain King Alfonso XII was peacefully abdicated and the Second 1Spanish Republic was formed It had been half a century since progressive political forces had been in power since the very brief first republic of 1873 and therefore there was a sense of urgency when implementing the immensely ambitious republican program of structural reformAll republican reforms were intended to increase economic democracy in order to establish a political democracy as well as achieve a fundamental redistribution of social and economic power in SpainIn 1936 Franco and a group of Spanish military leaders conspired to overthrow the Popular Front led Republican government The rebellion was only half successful and evolved into a civil war during which Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists He was able to secure the support of Italy and Germany while integrating the many heterogeneous rebel factions into the Movimiento NacionalFrancos victory meant an attempt to achieve economic modernization without political democracy and the cultural pluralism represented by the republicLongest ruling dictator in European history close to 40 yearsRussian RevolutionLenin The founder of the Bolshevik Party organizer of the October Revolution 1
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